MAZDA Advanced Petrol Engine Management English

September 7, 2017 | Author: Thuy Anh | Category: Turbocharger, Internal Combustion Engine, Fuel Injection, Throttle, Valve
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MAZDA Advanced Petrol Engine Management English...

Description

Training Manual

Advanced Petrol Engine Management CT-L3003

No part of this hardcopy may be reproduced in any form without prior permission of Mazda Motor Europe GmbH. The illustrations, technical information, data and descriptive text in this issue, to the best of our knowledge, were correct at the time of going to print. No liability can be accepted for any inaccuracies or omissions in this publication, although every possible care has been taken to make it as complete and accurate as possible.

© 2007 Mazda Motor Europe GmbH Training Services

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Table of Contents

Introduction .......................................................................................00-1 Fundamentals ....................................................................................00-2 Turbocharged Engine with Direct Injection............................................................00-2

Mazda Direct Injection System.........................................................01-1 Features ................................................................................................................01-1 Intake-air System........................................................................................................01-2 Features ................................................................................................................01-2 Parts Location........................................................................................................01-3 System Overview...................................................................................................01-4 Turbocharger .........................................................................................................01-5 Strategy of the Boost Pressure Control ..........................................................01-9 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-10 Charge-air Cooler ................................................................................................01-11 Charge-air Bypass Valve.....................................................................................01-12 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-13 Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor ......................................................................01-13 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-17 Variable Swirl Control System .............................................................................01-18 VSC Position Switch.....................................................................................01-21 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-22 Fuel System ..............................................................................................................01-23 Parts Location......................................................................................................01-23 System Overview.................................................................................................01-25 Directives for Working on Petrol Direct Injection Systems ..................................01-26 Preparatory Work .........................................................................................01-26 Safety Instructions ........................................................................................01-27 Low-pressure System..........................................................................................01-28 Features .......................................................................................................01-28 Fuel Tank Unit ..............................................................................................01-28 Fuel Pump Unit.............................................................................................01-29 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-33 High-pressure System .........................................................................................01-35 Features .......................................................................................................01-35 High-pressure Pump.....................................................................................01-35 High-pressure Line .......................................................................................01-38 Fuel Rail .......................................................................................................01-39 Pressure Limiter Valve .................................................................................01-40

Curriculum Training

Table of Contents

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Fuel Pressure Control..........................................................................................01-41 Features .......................................................................................................01-41 Fuel Pressure Sensor...................................................................................01-41 Spill Control Solenoid ...................................................................................01-43 Strategy of the Fuel Pressure Control ..........................................................01-47 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-47 Injection Control...................................................................................................01-48 Features .......................................................................................................01-48 Injector..........................................................................................................01-48 Injector Driver Module ..................................................................................01-51 Diagnostics ...................................................................................................01-56 Ignition System.........................................................................................................01-57 Features ..............................................................................................................01-57 Parts Location......................................................................................................01-57 Wiring Diagram....................................................................................................01-58 Emission System......................................................................................................01-59 Parts Location......................................................................................................01-59 System Overview.................................................................................................01-61 Exhaust System...................................................................................................01-62 Features .......................................................................................................01-62 Exhaust Gas Recirculation System .....................................................................01-62 Features .......................................................................................................01-62 Evaporative Emissions Control System...............................................................01-62 Features .......................................................................................................01-62 Positive Crankcase Ventilation System ...............................................................01-63 Features .......................................................................................................01-63 Control System .........................................................................................................01-64 Parts Location......................................................................................................01-64 Block Diagram .....................................................................................................01-65 Relationship Chart ...............................................................................................01-67 Powertrain Control Module ..................................................................................01-69 Features .......................................................................................................01-69 Controller Area Network ...............................................................................01-70 Sensors ...............................................................................................................01-72 Features .......................................................................................................01-72 Actuators .............................................................................................................01-72 Features .......................................................................................................01-72 Electrical Fan................................................................................................01-73

Curriculum Training

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Table of Contents

On-board Diagnostic System ...........................................................02-1 General..................................................................................................................02-1 Malfunction Indicator Light .......................................................................................02-2 Data Link Connector ..................................................................................................02-3 Diagnostic Trouble Codes .........................................................................................02-5 DTC Status ............................................................................................................02-6 Fault Detection Function ...........................................................................................02-7 Monitoring Strategy for Sensors ............................................................................02-7 Electrical Faults ..............................................................................................02-8 Range Faults ..................................................................................................02-8 Plausibility Faults............................................................................................02-9 Monitoring Strategy for Actuators ..........................................................................02-9 Electrical Faults ............................................................................................02-10 Functional Faults ..........................................................................................02-11 Monitoring Strategy for PCM ...............................................................................02-11 Fail-safe Function.....................................................................................................02-12 Fail-safe Strategy for Sensors .............................................................................02-12 Fail-safe Strategy for Actuators ...........................................................................02-13 European On-board Diagnostics ............................................................................02-14 General................................................................................................................02-14 Type Approval and Testing..................................................................................02-14 Definitions............................................................................................................02-16 Drive Cycle ...................................................................................................02-16 Warm-up Cycle.............................................................................................02-16 Monitors...............................................................................................................02-17 Comprehensive Component Monitor............................................................02-19 Misfire Monitor ..............................................................................................02-19 Fuel System Monitor.....................................................................................02-21 HO2S Monitor...............................................................................................02-21 HO2S Heater Monitor ...................................................................................02-23 TWC Monitor ................................................................................................02-23 EGR System Monitor....................................................................................02-25 Temporary Disablement of Monitors ............................................................02-26 Monitor Status ..............................................................................................02-26 MIL Activation and Fault Storage ........................................................................02-28 Freeze Frame Data .............................................................................................02-33 Diagnostic Monitoring Test Results .....................................................................02-35 Tamper Protection ...............................................................................................02-37 Diagnostics ..........................................................................................................02-38 OBD Drive Mode ..........................................................................................02-39 PCM Adaptive Memory Learning Mode........................................................02-39 Repair Verification Drive Mode.....................................................................02-41

Curriculum Training

Table of Contents

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Engine Mechanical System ..............................................................03-1 General..................................................................................................................03-1 Compression Pressure ..............................................................................................03-1 Valve Timing ...............................................................................................................03-2 Valve Clearance ..........................................................................................................03-3 Diagnostics .................................................................................................................03-4

Diagnostic Process ...........................................................................04-1 General..................................................................................................................04-1 Basic Checks for Troubleshooting ...........................................................................04-2

List of Abbreviations.........................................................................05-1

Curriculum Training

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Introduction

Introduction •

Ever stricter exhaust and noise emission regulations, and the demand for high power output and low fuel consumption impose increasing demands on the engine management system of the petrol engine. In order to fulfill these requirements the combustion process is improved continuously.



This course is a theoretical and practical guide to gain general and Mazda specific knowledge about direct injection systems, including their components, operation and diagnosis. In addition, the course provides comprehensive information about the on-board diagnostic system (incl. EOBD), the engine mechanical system and the diagnostic process.



While the manifold injection systems used on Mazda vehicles have already been covered by the course “Basic Petrol Engine Management” (CT-L2004), this course describes the more complex direct injection system employed on the Mazda3 MPS and Mazda6 MPS with 2.3 MZR DISI Turbo engine.



Anyone associated with the diagnosis and repair of petrol engine management systems must have the knowledge to deliver a “Fix it right first time” repair. Therefore, the Mazda Masters development and qualification path provides the following training courses required for diagnosing and repairing petrol engine management systems:

– – •

Basic Petrol Engine Management CT-L2004 Advanced Petrol Engine Management CT-L3003

The ranking of this course within the Mazda Masters educational system is Level 3 ‘Mazda Master Technician’. It is intended for technicians who have experience in maintaining and repairing Mazda vehicles, and who are familiar with the features and the operation of the various manifold injection systems.

Curriculum Training

00-1

Fundamentals

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Fundamentals Turbocharged Engine with Direct Injection •

In comparison to a naturally aspirated engine with the same power output the 2.3 MZR DISI (Direct Injection Spark Ignition) Turbo engine has a considerably smaller displacement, achieving the following advantages:

– – –

Reduced pumping loss due to less volume swept during each working cycle Reduced heat transfer to the cylinder wall due to its smaller surface area Reduced friction loss due to the smaller size of the moving parts (piston, piston rings, connecting rod etc.)



These measures result in lower fuel consumption, especially at part load. In addition, the engine is more compact and lightweight, improving handling of the vehicle.



In order to increase the engine torque and hence the power output across the entire engine speed range, the charging efficiency is increased with the aid of a turbocharger. However, turbochargers have serious disadvantages in terms of exhaust emissions and fuel consumption.



Basically, in a turbocharged engine it takes longer until the catalytic converter reaches its operating temperature, i.e. the exhaust emissions immediately after engine start are higher than on a naturally aspirated engine. This is due to the fact that the turbocharger absorbs large amounts of exhaust heat, reducing the exhaust gas temperature.



At the same time, there is an adverse effect on the thermal efficiency due to the low compression ratio of the turbocharged engine, i.e. the fuel consumption is higher compared with a naturally aspirated engine. However, it is impracticable to set a high compression ratio, since the higher temperature in the combustion chamber of the turbocharged engine can easily lead to engine knocking.

00-2

Curriculum Training

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Fundamentals



The adoption of direct injection is the solution to these problems of the turbocharged engine. Through the injection of a finely atomized fuel spray directly into the combustion chamber a homogeneous air/fuel mixture forms in the vicinity of the spark plug, ensuring stable combustion. This allows the ignition timing to be retarded, enabling a high exhaust gas temperature even with a turbocharger installed. As a result, the catalytic converter reaches its operating temperature faster, achieving low exhaust emissions immediately after engine start.



Furthermore, direct injection improves the internal cooling effect in the combustion chamber, since the fuel evaporates solely in the cylinder (and not already in the intake port as on a turbocharged engine with manifold injection). In this way, engine knocking is prevented even with a turbocharger installed. As a result, the compression ratio can be set as high as for a naturally aspirated engine, reducing the fuel consumption.

L3003_00001

1 2

2.3 MZR engine 2.3 MZR DISI Turbo engine

Curriculum Training

3 4

Injector Spark plug

00-3

Fundamentals

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Notes:

00-4

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System Mazda Direct Injection System Features •

The Mazda3 and Mazda6 with L3T engine are equipped with the Mazda direct injection system. This system has the following features:

– – –

Turbocharger with charge-air cooler Returnless fuel system with high-pressure pump Distributorless ignition system with direct ignition coils

L3003_01001

NOTE: Some of the components of the Mazda direct injection system are very similar in design and operation to those of the Mazda manifold injection system. Therefore, this section only describes the components which are new or operate in a different way to those of the Mazda manifold injection system.

Curriculum Training

01-1

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System Features •

The intake-air system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:



Hot wire-type mass air flow sensor with integrated intake air temperature sensor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Turbocharger with fixed geometry turbine and boost pressure control valve with pressure actuator

– – –

Charge-air cooler



Electronic throttle valve with inductive-type accelerator pedal position sensor for Mazda3 MPS



Manifold absolute pressure sensor with integrated intake air temperature sensor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

– – –

No variable intake-air system

01-2

Charge-air bypass valve Electronic throttle valve with hall-type accelerator pedal position sensor for Mazda6 MPS (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

No variable tumble control system Variable swirl control system

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

Parts Location

L3003_01002

Mazda6 MPS 1 2 3 4 5 6

Charge –air-cooler Turbocharger Air cleaner Accelerator pedal Resonance chamber Charge-air bypass valve

Curriculum Training

7 8 9 10 11 12

Intake manifold VSC solenoid valve VSC vacuum actuator Electronic throttle valve VBC solenoid valve VBC pressure actuator

01-3

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

System Overview

L3003_01003

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

01-4

VSC vacuum actuator VSC solenoid valve Vacuum chamber One-way valve Electronic throttle valve Charge-air bypass valve Charge-air cooler MAF/IAT sensor

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Air cleaner Flow limiter Turbocharger Boost pressure control valve VBC pressure actuator VBC solenoid valve VSC shutter valves

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

Turbocharger •

The turbocharger improves the charging efficiency of the engine, so that the torque and hence the power output of the engine are increased accordingly. The exhaust gases flowing out of the cylinder drive a turbine, which is connected to a compressor by means of the turbine shaft. The compressor forces the intake air into the cylinders at a pressure of up to 120 kPa (depending on the engine load).



During engine operation the turbine shaft turns at a speed of up to 200,000 min-1. Additionally it has to withstand a high thermal load due to the high exhaust gas temperature of approx. 1000 °C. Only hydrodynamic bearings can cope with these operating conditions. In order to lubricate the hydrodynamic bearings the turbocharger is connected to the lubrication system of the engine. In addition, the turbocharger housing is cooled by the engine cooling system.

NOTE: The extremely high rotational speeds of the turbine shaft subject its bearings to a certain amount of wear. As a result, engine oil can escape from a faulty bearing and get into the intake-air system, contaminating its components (such as charge-air cooler etc.). In addition, the oil burns in the engine, which can lead to damage to the engine components (such as contamination of the spark plugs, HO2S, TWC etc.).

L3003_01004

1 2

Charge-air cooler Turbine

Curriculum Training

3 4

Turbine shaft Compressor

01-5

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System



Since the turbine and compressor wheel have the same rotational speed, the boost pressure created by the turbocharger depends on the exhaust-gas flow, which in turn depends on the engine speed. As a result, the boost pressure rises with increasing engine speed.



The turbocharger features a FGT (Fixed Geometry Turbine) and controls the boost pressure via a boost pressure control valve (also termed as wastegate). The boost pressure control valve is driven by a pressure actuator, which is connected to the compressor housing by means of a hose.



When the boost pressure exceeds a pre-set value, the boost pressure control valve opens and the surplus exhaust gas is ducted past the turbine. In this way, the exhaustgas flow through the turbine is limited, preventing a further increase in boost pressure.

L3003_01005

1 2 3 4

01-6

Compressor Turbine Boost pressure control valve Push rod

5 6 7

VBC pressure actuator Turbine shaft Boost pressure control valve open

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System



In order to increase the boost pressure temporarily under certain operating conditions, the operation of the boost pressure control valve is controlled by the PCM via the VBC (Variable Boost Control) solenoid valve (also termed as wastegate control solenoid valve). The VBC solenoid valve opens or closes a connection between pressure actuator and intake pipe (upstream of the turbocharger).



The pressure applied to the pressure actuator of the boost pressure control valve and hence the position of the valve varies depending on the current flowing through the coil of the VBC solenoid valve, which in turn depends on the duty signal from the PCM.

L3003_01010

1 2

From PCM control relay VBC solenoid valve

Curriculum Training

3

PCM

01-7

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System



When the accelerator pedal position is above 18.75 % and the engine speed is below 7000 min-1 (depending on the model), the PCM activates the VBC solenoid valve, opening the connection between pressure actuator and intake pipe. As a result, the pressure applied to the pressure actuator falls below the pre-set value, so that the boost pressure control valve does not open. This allows a temporary increase in boost pressure.



In any other condition than above the PCM deactivates the VBC solenoid valve, closing the connection between pressure actuator and intake pipe. As a result, the pressure applied to the pressure actuator exceeds the pre-set value, so that the boost pressure control valve opens. This prevents a further increase in boost pressure.

NOTE: In case of an open circuit the VBC solenoid valve adopts in the closed position in which the pressure applied to the boost pressure actuator exceeds the pre-set value and the boost pressure control valve opens. This fail-safe strategy is also applied when there is an open circuit at the MAP sensor.

L3003_01006

1 2 3 4 5

01-8

VBC solenoid valve energized VBC solenoid valve de-energized Boost pressure control valve closed VBC pressure actuator VBC solenoid valve

6 7 8 9

Turbocharger Boost pressure control valve open Intake-air flow Exhaust-gas flow

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Intake-air System

The PCM controls the VBC solenoid valve by a duty signal 0 V/12 V. The boost pressure is proportional to the duty ratio, i.e. the larger the duty ratio the higher the boost pressure.

L3003_01054

Strategy of the Boost Pressure Control •

The boost pressure control varies the boost pressure according to the operating conditions of the engine. The PCM processes the incoming information, calculates from it the target boost pressure and controls the boost pressure control valve accordingly. The main parameters for calculating the boost pressure are:

– – – •

Mass airflow Engine speed Throttle position

The PCM continuously monitors the boost pressure via the MAP sensor signal. In order to protect the engine against overheating in case of a malfunction, the PCM reduces the injection amount.

Curriculum Training

01-9

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Diagnostics •

The turbocharger can be checked as following:

– – – – – – –

Monitoring the boost pressure via the PID MAP (Press/Volt) Monitoring the charge-air temperature via the PIDs BAT (Temp)/ BAT_V (Volt) Checking the turbocharger Monitoring/Activating the VBC solenoid valve via the PID WGC# (Per) Checking the voltage signal at the VBC solenoid valve Checking the resistance of the VBC solenoid valve Checking the function of the boost pressure control valve

Checking the turbocharger •

Turn the turbine shaft in the normal direction of rotation. If scraping noises are heard, this indicates a faulty turbocharger (the compressor wheel and/or the turbine wheel is scraping on the housing). In addition, a visual check must be made for missing or damaged turbine and compressor blades.

Checking the function of the boost pressure control valve •

Pinch the hose from the compressor housing to the pressure actuator using a hose clamp. Then disconnect the hose coming from the VBC solenoid valve at the pressure actuator, connect a hand-operated pressure pump to the VBC pressure actuator and apply pressure. Check, whether the boost pressure control valve opens at a certain pressure, and closes when the system is vented.

01-10

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

Charge-air Cooler •

The charge-air cooler (also termed as intercooler) improves the charging efficiency of the turbocharged engine, so that torque and hence power output are increased accordingly. When the intake air is compressed in the turbocharger, not only the pressure but also the temperature of the air rises. As a result, the density of the charge air decreases, leading to a larger volume and hence to a lower cylinder charge. In order to compensate this effect the charge air is cooled accordingly.



In addition, cooling the charge air lowers the temperature in the combustion chamber, preventing engine knocking.

L3003_01007

1

Charge-air cooler

Curriculum Training

2

Charge-air bypass valve

01-11

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Charge-air Bypass Valve •

The charge-air bypass valve protects the turbocharger’s compressor wheel against pressure waves. These pressure waves occur when the throttle valve closes suddenly, but the compressor wheel is still rotating very fast and pumping air at the closed throttle valve.



The charge-air bypass valve is located in the intake pipe between charge-air cooler and electronic throttle valve, and is driven by a vacuum actuator.



When the throttle valve is closed or partly open (at idle or at part load) there is a vacuum in the intake manifold. As a result, the charge-air bypass valve opens and the surplus air is returned to the intake pipe upstream of the turbocharger. In this way, the air pumped at the closed throttle valve does not flow backwards to the compressor, allowing the compressor wheel to rotate freely.

L3003_01008

1 2 3 4 5

Throttle valve open Throttle valve closed Charge-air bypass valve closed Vacuum actuator Valve

01-12

6 7 8 9

Throttle valve Charge-air bypass valve open Atmosphere pressure or excess pressure Vacuum

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

Diagnostics •

The charge-air bypass valve can be checked as following:



Checking the function of the charge-air bypass valve

Checking the function of the charge-air bypass valve •

Remove the charge-air bypass valve from the intake pipe, connect a hand-operated vacuum pump to the vacuum actuator and apply vacuum. Check, whether the valve moves easily, and returns to the parked position when the system is vented.

Accelerator Pedal Position Sensor •

The Mazda3 MPS is equipped with an inductive-type APP sensor. For safety reasons the APP sensor features two inductive sensors, each consisting of a stator element with excitation and receiver coils, and a rotor element joint to the accelerator pedal.

L3003_01032

1

APP sensor

Curriculum Training

2

Accelerator pedal

01-13

Intake-air System •

Mazda Direct Injection System

Alternating current passing through the excitation coils creates an electromagnetic field, which acts on the rotor and hence on the receiver coils. In this way, a voltage is induced in the receiver coils, which changes depending on the angular position of the rotor. As a result, the position of the accelerator pedal can be detected wear-free.

NOTE: If one inductive sensor fails, the PCM uses the signal from the other inductive sensor to detect the driver’s acceleration demand. As a result, the vehicle can be driven without major restrictions. If the APP sensor fails completely, the PCM deactivates the DC motor of the electronic throttle valve. As a result, the throttle valve is maintained slightly open by the spring-loaded stop, so that the engine speed is fixed at approx. 1500 min-1.

L3003_01052

1 2 3

Rotor Printed circuit board Evaluation electronics

01-14

4 5

Receiver coil Excitation coil

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

L3003_01039

1 2

APP sensor From PCM control relay

3

PCM



One inductive sensor transmits a digital voltage signal 0 V/12 V to the PCM. The frequency of the signal is proportional to the accelerator pedal position, i.e. the more the accelerator pedal is pressed the higher the frequency.



The other inductive sensor supplies the PCM with an analogue voltage signal between 0…5 V. The output voltage is proportional to the accelerator pedal position, i.e. the more the accelerator pedal is pressed the higher the voltage. The PCM permanently compares the signals of both sensors to monitor the APP sensor for failure.

Curriculum Training

01-15

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01055

01-16

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

Diagnostics •

The electronic throttle valve can be checked as following:

– – – – –

Monitoring the engine speed via the PID RPM (Rpm)

– – – – –

Checking the voltage signal at the DC motor

– –

Checking the voltage signals of the TP sensor



Checking the voltage signals of the APP sensor

Monitoring the desired engine speed via the PID ARPMDES (Rpm) Checking the voltage at the drive-by-wire relay Checking the resistance of the drive-by-wire relay Monitoring the actual and desired position of the DC motor via the PIDs ETC_ACT (Angl) and ETC_DSD (Per/Angl)

Checking the resistance of the DC motor Monitoring the TP sensor signals via the PIDs TP1/TP2 (Per/Volt) and TP REL (Per) Monitoring the closed throttle position via the PID IVS (Mode) Monitoring the learned value for the fully closed throttle position via the PID TPCT (Volt)

Monitoring the APP sensor signals via the PIDs APP1/APP2 (Per/Volt) and APP (Per)

Curriculum Training

01-17

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Variable Swirl Control System •

The VSC (Variable Swirl Control) system is integrated in the intake manifold and reduces the exhaust emissions of the cold engine. The VSC shutter valves are driven by a vacuum actuator, and open or close one of the two intake ports per cylinder.

L3003_01009

1 2

VSC vacúum actuator VSC shutter valves

01-18

3 4

Intake manifold VSC position switch

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Intake-air System

The position of the VSC shutter valves is controlled by the PCM, which activates the VSC solenoid valve by an ON/OFF signal.

L3003_01010

1 2

From PCM control relay VSC solenoid valve

3

PCM



When the engine speed is less than 3250 min-1 (depending on the model), the engine coolant temperature is less than 60 °C and the throttle opening angle is below a certain value (light engine load), the PCM energizes the VSC solenoid valve, applying vacuum to the vacuum actuator. As a result, the VSC shutter valves close the second intake port of each cylinder, so that the intake air is induced in the cylinder only via one intake port. Thus, the flow speed of the air entering the cylinder is increased, resulting in a strong swirl and a good mixture of the injected fuel with the air. This improves the combustion process and hence the exhaust emissions.



In any other condition than above the PCM de-energizes the VSC solenoid valve, applying atmosphere pressure to the vacuum actuator. As a result, the VSC shutter valves open the second intake port of each cylinder, so that the intake air is induced into the cylinder via both intake ports. Thus, the intake air is induced in the cylinder without throttling, resulting in a high air throughput and a good cylinder charge. This ensures, that the engine delivers the required power output.

NOTE: In case of an open circuit the VSC shutter valves adopt in the open position in which no swirl is produced.

Curriculum Training

01-19

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01011

1 2 3 4

VSC solenoid valve energized VSC solenoid valve de-energized Intake port VSC shutter valve closed

01-20

5 6 7

Air swirl Cylinder VSC shutter valve open

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Intake-air System

VSC Position Switch •

The VSC position switch is located at the VSC vacuum actuator and detects the position of the VSC shutter valves. When the VSC shutter valves are open, the switch closes and supplies the PCM with a voltage signal of 0 V.



The signal of the VSC position switch serves to detect a malfunction of the VSC system (such as VSC shutter valves stuck closed etc.).

L3003_01012

1

VSC position switch

Curriculum Training

2

PCM

01-21

Intake-air System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Diagnostics •

The VSC system can be checked as following:

– – – – – –

Monitoring/Activating the VSC shutter valves via the PID IMRC# (Mode) Checking the voltage at the VSC solenoid valve Checking the resistance of the VSC solenoid valve Checking the function of the VSC shutter valves Checking the voltage of the VSC position switch Checking the resistance of the VSC position switch

Checking the function of the VSC shutter valves •

Connect a hand-operated vacuum pump to the VSC vacuum actuator and apply vacuum. Check, whether the adjusting linkage moves easily, and returns to the parked position when the system is vented.

01-22

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Fuel System Parts Location

L3003_01013

Mazda6 MPS (engine compartment side) 1 2 3

Spill control solenoid High-pressure pump Ballast resistor

Curriculum Training

4 5 6

Fuel rail Fuel injector Fuel pressure sensor

01-23

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01014

Mazda6 MPS (fuel tank side) 1 2

Rollover valve Fuel pump unit

01-24

3 4

Fuel tank unit Fuel tank

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

System Overview

L3003_01015

Mazda6 MPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Fuel-filler cap Fuel tank Fuel filter (high-pressure) Pressure regulator Filter screen Fuel pump Fuel pump unit

8 9 10 11 12 13

High-pressure pump Fuel rail Pressure limiter valve Fuel pressure sensor Fuel injectors Fuel flow

NOTE: To ensure proper function of the engine only unleaded petrol with a maximum lead proportion of 5 mg/L and a maximum sulphur proportion of 150 ppm according to standard DIN EN 228 must be used. Although the L3T engine is designed to use petrol with 98 RON premium specification, it will also run with 95 RON petrol, resulting in a reduced power output. Do NOT use petrol with less than 95 RON, since this can cause severe knocking and hence serious engine damage. NOTE: Mixing of any additives (e.g. fuel system cleaner) to the petrol other than those specified by Mazda is strictly forbidden, since this can lead to damage of the engine components (such as contamination of the spark plugs, HO2S, TWC etc.).

Curriculum Training

01-25

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Directives for Working on Petrol Direct Injection Systems •

The work on petrol direct injection systems must be carried out by skilled professional personnel, who are familiar with the safety regulations and who take special measures to ensure that these are followed. The relevant rules and directives must be observed, especially regarding:

– – –

Directives of the responsible health authorities Accident prevention Environment protection

Preparatory Work •

Before working on a petrol direct injection system the following preparatory work must be done:

– – – –

The working area must be clean and dust free. The workers must wear clean clothing. Parts which are in for repair must be stored in a dust free environment. Always observe the tightening torques for the high-pressure line and utilise a torque wrench that is controlled regularly.

NOTE: The use of fuel additives for cleaning or metal coating of the fuel system is forbidden.

01-26

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Safety Instructions •

In consideration of the high pressure (max. 12 MPa) in the petrol direct injection system, the following instructions must be observed:



Absolute prohibition of smoking in the immediate vicinity of the fuel system while working on it.

– – –

No work to be carried out in the immediate vicinity of open flames or sparks.



Always stay outside of the range of a possible fuel jet when the engine is running, since this can cause serious injuries.



Do not position the hands in the area of a suspected leak in the high-pressure system when the engine is running.

No work to be carried out on the fuel system when the engine is running. Do not open the fuel system unless the fuel pressure has been released using a special procedure (refer to the section “Low-pressure System, Diagnostics”).

Curriculum Training

01-27

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Low-pressure System Features •

The low-pressure system has the following features:

– –

Returnless, demand-controlled fuel system



Fuel pump unit incorporating fuel gauge sender unit, swirl pot with jet pump, fuel filter, fuel pump and pressure regulator for Mazda3 MPS (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Fuel pump unit (incorporating main fuel gauge sender unit, swirl pot with main and sub-jet pump, fuel filter, fuel pump and pressure regulator) and fuel tank unit (incorporating sub-fuel gauge sender unit and filter screen) for Mazda6 MPS

Fuel Tank Unit •

Due to the saddle-shaped fuel tank divided into main and sub-tank, the Mazda6 MPS features a fuel tank unit in addition to the fuel pump unit.



The fuel tank unit is located in the sub-tank and incorporates the sub-fuel gauge sender unit and the filter screen.

01-28

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Fuel Pump Unit •

Vehicles with Mazda direct injection system feature a returnless, demand-controlled fuel system. The system varies the fuel amount delivered to the high-pressure pump and hence the fuel pressure in the low-pressure system depending on the operating conditions, improving reliability.



On the Mazda6 MPS the fuel pump unit is located in the main tank and incorporates the main fuel gauge sender unit, swirl pot with main and sub-jet pump, fuel filter, fuel pump and pressure regulator.



On the Mazda3 MPS the fuel pump unit is located in the fuel tank and incorporates the fuel gauge sender unit, swirl pot with jet pump, fuel filter, fuel pump and pressure regulator.

Swirl Pot •

On the Mazda6 MPS the swirl pot features a main jet pump and a sub-jet pump, which are connected in parallel. The main jet pump transfers fuel from the main tank to the swirl pot, and the sub-jet pump from the sub-tank to the swirl pot. Both jet pumps operate on the venturi effect, i.e. the returning fuel from the pressure regulator flows through the jet pump and sucks additional fuel into the swirl pot.

Curriculum Training

01-29

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01027

Mazda6 MPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Fuel tank unit Fuel pump unit Fuel filter To high-pressure pump Swirl pot Pressure regulator Filter screen

01-30

8 9 10 11 12 13

Main jet pump Feed fuel flow Flow of transferred fuel From fuel tank unit Sub-jet pump Fuel pump

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Fuel Pump •

The fuel pump is controlled by the PCM via the fuel pump relay, the fuel pump speed control relay and the ballast resistor (the latter one is located under the air cleaner housing).

L3003_01028

1 2 3

Fuel pump speed control relay Ballast resistor Fuel pump relay

Curriculum Training

4 5

Fuel pump motor PCM

01-31

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System



When the ignition is switched on the PCM energizes the fuel pump relay for 1 s to build up pressure in the fuel feed line, improving engine start.



During cranking, a short time after hot start or when the engine speed is high the PCM energizes both the fuel pump relay and the fuel pump speed control relay, switching the power supply directly to the fuel pump motor. As a result, battery voltage is supplied to the fuel pump motor, so that the fuel pump operates at high speed. Thus, the fuel amount delivered to the high-pressure pump and hence the fuel pressure in the lowpressure system is high.



In any other condition than above the PCM energizes solely the fuel pump relay, switching the power supply to the fuel pump motor via the ballast resistor. Due to the voltage drop at the ballast resistor the voltage supplied to the fuel pump motor is reduced, so that the fuel pump operates at low speed. Thus, the fuel amount delivered to the high-pressure pump and hence the fuel pressure in the low-pressure system is low.



In this way, the fuel pump relay and the fuel pump speed control relay vary the pressure in the fuel feed line between 380…480 kPa (depending on the operating conditions) while the engine is running.

01-32

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Diagnostics •

The low-pressure system can be checked as following:



Monitoring / Activating the fuel pump relay and the fuel pump speed control relay via the PID FP# (Mode)

– – – – – – – – –

Checking the voltage at the fuel pump relay/fuel pump speed control relay Checking the resistance of the fuel pump relay/fuel pump speed control relay Checking the voltage at the fuel pump motor Checking the resistance of the fuel pump motor Checking the resistance of the ballast resistor Releasing the fuel pressure Checking the fuel pressure Checking the fuel hold pressure Checking the fuel delivery amount

Releasing the fuel pressure •

Start the engine, remove the fuel pump relay (to switch off the fuel pump) and wait until the engine stalls. Then crank the engine several times until the fuel pressure is released.

Checking the fuel pressure •

Connect the PVT (with the aid of the FHA and the SST GV2323) between fuel feed line and high-pressure pump. Then select the PID FP# (Mode) in the M-MDS Datalogger and set the PID to “ON” (to switch on the fuel pump). Check the fuel pressure using the WDS Digital Multimeter. If the fuel pressure is above the specification (refer to the workshop manual), the fuel pump unit might be faulty (e.g. blocked pressure regulator).



If the fuel pressure is below the specification, this could be caused by a restriction in the fuel feed line, faulty fuel pump unit (e.g. blocked fuel filter, faulty fuel pump or leaking pressure regulator) or a leaking injector. In order to rule out a faulty fuel pump unit, pinch the fuel line from the SST to the high-pressure pump while repeating the test. If the fuel pressure is now within specification, an injector might be leaking.

NOTE: This test should only be performed, if the diagnostic check revealed that the fuel feed line itself is leak-free.

Curriculum Training

01-33

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Checking the fuel hold pressure •

Connect the PVT (with the aid of the FHA and the SST GV2323) between fuel feed line and high-pressure pump. Then select the PID FP# (Mode) in the M-MDS Datalogger and set the PID for 10 s to “ON” (to switch on the fuel pump). Then set the PID to “OFF” again and check the fuel hold pressure after 5 min using the WDS Digital Multimeter.



If the fuel hold pressure is below the specification, this could be caused by a faulty fuel pump unit (e.g. leaking fuel pump or leaking pressure regulator) or a leaking injector. In order to rule out a faulty fuel pump unit, pinch the fuel line from the SST to the highpressure pump while repeating the test. If the fuel hold pressure is now within specification, an injector might be leaking.

NOTE: This test should only be performed, if the diagnostic check revealed that the fuel feed line itself is leak-free. Checking the fuel delivery amount •

Disconnect the fuel feed line at the high-pressure pump and connect the SST GV2323 to the line. The other end of the SST must go to a measuring container. Then select the PID FP# (Mode) in the M-MDS Datalogger, set the PID for 10 s to “ON” (to switch on the fuel pump) and measure the amount of fuel delivered during this time.



If the fuel amount is far below the reference value, this could be caused by a faulty fuel pump speed control relay or a faulty fuel pump unit (e.g. blocked fuel filter or faulty fuel pump). In order to rule out a faulty fuel pump speed control relay, measure the voltage at the fuel pump motor while repeating the test. If the voltage is approx. 12 V, the fuel pump unit might be faulty.

01-34

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

High-pressure System Features •

The high-pressure system has the following features:

– – –

High-pressure pump High-pressure line Fuel rail with pressure limiter valve

High-pressure Pump •

The high-pressure pump produces the high pressure and delivers the fuel to the fuel rail. It is located at the cylinder head and consists of the plunger, inlet valve, outlet valve, spill control solenoid and pulsation damper.

L3003_01040

1 2 3

Spill control solenoid Plunger To fuel rail

Curriculum Training

4 5

From fuel tank From pressure limiter valve

01-35

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System



The spring-loaded plunger of the high-pressure pump is driven by a trochoid-shaped cam on the camshaft, which turns with half the engine speed.



When the plunger moves from TDC to BDC, fuel flows through the open inlet valve into the high-pressure chamber (filling phase).

L3003_01043

1 2 3 4



Spill control solenoid Inlet valve Plunger Camshaft with trochoid-shaped cam

5 6 7

Spring Outlet valve Pulsation damper

When the plunger moves from BDC to TDC (working stroke) and the spill control solenoid holds the inlet valve open, the fuel in the high-pressure chamber is returned to the suction side of the pump (spilling phase).

L3003_01044

01-36

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Fuel System

As soon as the spill control solenoid releases the inlet valve, the valve closes and fuel is compressed in the high-pressure chamber (start of high-pressure phase). When the pressure in the high-pressure chamber rises, the outlet valve opens and the fuel is forced through the high-pressure line to the fuel rail. The working stroke is completed as soon as the pressure in the high-pressure chamber is lower than the pressure in the high-pressure line and the outlet valve closes (end of high-pressure phase).

L3003_01045



In addition, the high-pressure pump is equipped with a pulsation damper, which is located on the suction side of the pump and consists of two damping chambers made of sheet metal. If the pressure on the suction side has reached the target value, the damping chambers become deformed, enlarging the volume available for the fuel. As a result, the surplus fuel is absorbed when pressure peaks occur and is also released when the pressure drops, so that the pressure fluctuations resulting from the delivery characteristics of the pump are damped.



Since the high-pressure pump is not equipped with a return line to the fuel tank that allows to release the fuel pressure, the fuel might be under high pressure even if the engine is not running. For this reason, the fuel pressure must always be released before the fuel system is opened.

Curriculum Training

01-37

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

High-pressure Line •

The high-pressure line connects the high-pressure pump to the fuel rail. To avoid pressure fluctuations and vibration fractures, it is made of thick-walled seamless steel tube with large bending radii.

NOTE: When removing the high-pressure line it must always be replaced, since the O-ring and the plastic washers are not available as separate spare parts.

L3003_01030

1 2

High-pressure line O-ring

01-38

3

Plastic washer

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Fuel Rail •

The fuel rail stores the fuel at constant high pressure between 3…12 MPa (depending on the operating conditions). The working strokes of the high-pressure pump, and the opening and closing of the injectors produce pressure fluctuations in the high-pressure system. Therefore, the fuel rail is designed in a way that it has sufficient volume to restrict the pressure fluctuations to a minimum. On the other hand, the volume of the fuel rail is small enough to build up the fuel pressure required for rapid starting in the shortest possible time.

NOTE: When re-installing the fuel rail always replace the O-rings and/or plastic washers between fuel rail and injectors, and between injectors and cylinder head.

L3003_01029

1 2 3

To injector Pressure limiter valve From high-pressure pump

Curriculum Training

4 5

Fuel rail Fuel pressure sensor

01-39

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Pressure Limiter Valve •

The pressure limiter valve protects the high-pressure system against excessive pressure in case of a malfunction. The valve is located on the fuel rail and contains a springloaded ball valve. If the pressure in the fuel rail exceeds the maximum permissible level of 13 MPa, the valve opens and the surplus fuel is returned to the suction side of the high-pressure pump.

L3003_01048

1 2 3

To high-pressure pump Valve body Valve ball

01-40

4 5 6

From fuel rail Valve seat Spring

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Fuel Pressure Control Features •

The fuel pressure control has the following features:

– –

Fuel pressure sensor Spill control solenoid

Fuel Pressure Sensor •

The fuel pressure sensor is located on the fuel rail and detects the fuel pressure in the rail. It consists of a steel diaphragm with integrated strain gauges. The electrical resistance of the strain gauges varies, when their shape changes due to exposure to pressure.

NOTE: When removing the fuel pressure sensor it must always be replaced as well as the fuel rail, since the sealing cones of sensor and rail become deformed during installation.

L3003_01031

1 2

Evaluation electronics Steel diaphragm with integrated strain gauges

Curriculum Training

3

From fuel rail

01-41

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01053

1



Fuel pressure sensor

2

PCM

The fuel pressure sensor supplies the PCM with an analogue voltage signal between 0…5 V. The output voltage is proportional to the fuel pressure, i.e. the higher the fuel pressure the higher the output voltage.

L3003_01050

X

Fuel pressure

01-42

Y

Output voltage

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Spill Control Solenoid •

The spill control solenoid controls the high-pressure phase duration of the pump and hence the fuel amount delivered to the fuel rail. As a result, the fuel pressure in the rail varies depending on the operating conditions. The spill control solenoid consists of a coil and a spring-loaded armature.



When the spill control solenoid is de-energized during the working stroke of the pump, the armature holds the inlet valve open. As a result, the spilling phase starts, i.e. fuel is returned to the suction side of the pump.



When the spill control solenoid is energized during the working stroke of the pump, the armature releases the inlet valve. As a result, the valve closes and the high-pressure phase starts, i.e. fuel is delivered to the fuel rail.

NOTE: In case of an open circuit the spill control solenoid holds the inlet valve open, i.e. no high pressure is produced anymore. As a result, the fuel supplied by the fuel pump suffices to open the outlet valve of the high-pressure pump and flows into the fuel rail, so that the engine continues to run with a fuel pressure of approx. 450…540 kPa. Since the PCM increases the opening time of the injectors to keep the injection amount constant, the engine exhibits a severe bucking during acceleration. This fail-safe strategy is also applied when there is an open circuit at the fuel pressure sensor.

Curriculum Training

01-43

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01046

1 2 3 4

Spill control solenoid de-energized Spill control solenoid energized Spring Armature

01-44

5 6 7 8

Coil Fuel flow Plunger movement To fuel rail

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System



The energization time of the spill control solenoid determines the duration of the highpressure phase, varying the fuel pressure from zero to maximum.



However, the energization time is restricted to minimize the power loss in the spill control solenoid, preventing it from overheating. For this reason, the PCM de-energizes the solenoid before the end of the working stroke when maximum fuel pressure is required. Due to the high pressure at the end of the working stroke the inlet valve remains closed, so that the high-pressure phase continues.

L3003_01047

1 2 3 4 5

Cam lift Energization state of the spill control solenoid Injection amount Start of fuel delivery End of fuel delivery

Curriculum Training

6 7 8 9 10

Cam angle Small delivery amount Large delivery amount Inlet valve closed Inlet valve closed although spill control solenoid is OFF

01-45

Fuel System •

Mazda Direct Injection System

The energization of the spill control solenoid and hence the duration of the high-pressure phase varies depending on the duty signal from the PCM.

L3003_01052

1



Spill control solenoid

2

PCM

The PCM controls the spill control solenoid by a duty signal 0 V/12 V. The duration of the high-pressure phase is proportional to the duty ratio, i.e. the larger the duty ratio the higher the fuel pressure.

L3003_01056

01-46

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Strategy of the Fuel Pressure Control •

The fuel pressure control varies the fuel pressure according to the operating conditions of the engine. The PCM processes the incoming information, calculates from it the target fuel pressure and controls the spill control solenoid accordingly. The main parameters for calculating the fuel pressure are:

– – – •

Mass airflow Engine speed Engine coolant temperature

Generally, the fuel pressure is increased with rising engine speed, since the time available for the injection process becomes shorter.

Diagnostics •

The components of the fuel pressure control can be checked as following:



Monitoring the fuel pressure via the PIDs FUEL_PRES (Press)/ FUEL_PRES_V (Volt)

– – – –

Checking the voltage of the fuel pressure sensor Monitoring the spill control solenoid via the PID FP_HI_PRES (Mode) Checking the voltage signal of the spill control solenoid Checking the resistance of the spill control solenoid

Curriculum Training

01-47

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Injection Control Features •

The injection control has the following features:

– –

Injectors driven by an injector driver module (Mazda6 MPS) Injectors driven by the PCM (Mazda3 MPS)

Injector •

The electrically actuated fuel injectors control the injection amount and the injection timing according to the operating conditions. The injectors consist of a coil, spring and valve needle.

L3003_01034

1 2 3

O-ring Spring Valve needle

01-48

4 5

Injection orifice plate Coil

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System



When the coil is de-energized, the injector is closed by the spring force acting on the valve needle.



When the coil is energized, the magnetic force exceeds the spring force acting on the valve needle and the injector opens.



The injectors are equipped with an injection orifice plate with one spray hole, which ensures optimum atomization of the fuel.

L3003_01035

1 2

Fuel jet Front view

Curriculum Training

3

Side view

01-49

Fuel System •

Mazda Direct Injection System

In case the injectors stick in the cylinder head due to carbon accumulation, they can be removed using the SST 49G013101.

NOTE: When removing the injectors care must be taken not to damage the injector connector. In addition, it might be necessary to cut the tab of the oil separator to remove injector no.3 (refer to the workshop manual for details). NOTE: Do NOT apply grease to the injectors or to the injector bore in the cylinder head during installation, since this causes the injectors to stick.

L3003_01036

1

SST 49G013101

01-50

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Fuel System

Injector Driver Module •

The Mazda6 MPS is equipped with an IDM (Injector Driver Module), which is located under the battery tray and drives the injectors according to the control signals from the PCM. It has a high-voltage generator inside, which amplifies the battery voltage into a high voltage of approx. 100 V and stores it in a capacitor. A control circuit outputs the high voltage to the injectors as a drive signal.



The PCM also controls the power supply of the IDM via the IDM relay.

L3003_01037

Mazda6 MPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

IDM High-voltage generator Control circuit From IDM relay Control signal for injector no 1 Control signal for injector no.4 Control signal for injector no.2

Curriculum Training

8 9 10 11 12 13

Control signal for injector no 3 Feedback signal Injector no.1 Injector no.4 Injector no.2 Injector no.3

01-51

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System



The energization of the injector coil and hence the opening time of the injector varies depending on the drive signal from the IDM, which in turn depends on the control signal from the PCM.



The IDM actuates the injectors in three phases. When the control signal for a certain injector is input from the PCM to the IDM, the IDM energizes the injector in question with a high voltage of approx. 100 V (pull-up phase). Due to the high pull-up current (approx. 10 A) the injector opens rapidly.



In the holding phase the IDM reduces the actuating voltage to 12 V, resulting in a lower holding current (approx. 7 A). As a result, the power loss in the IDM and in the injector is minimized, preventing overheating of these components.



In the turn-off phase, the IDM cuts off the actuating voltage to close the injector.



The PCM controls the IDM by a duty signal 0 V/10 V. The opening time of the injectors is proportional to the duty ratio, i.e. the larger the duty ratio the higher the injection amount. In addition, the IDM sends a feedback signal 0 V/5 V to the PCM to facilitate failure detection.

L3003_01051

1 2 3

Injector control signal Injector drive current Feedback signal

01-52

4 5

Pull-up phase Holding phase

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Fuel System

The injectors no.1 and no.4, and the injectors no. 2 and no.3 are connected in parallel, i.e. two injectors each feature the same IDM terminal for the positive voltage supply.

NOTE: In case of an open circuit the IDM cuts off the negative voltage supply for the injector in question, so that the engine continues to run on three cylinders.

L3003_01057

L3003_01058

Curriculum Training

01-53

Fuel System •

Mazda Direct Injection System

On the Mazda3 MPS the IDM has been cancelled, i.e. the injectors are directly driven by the PCM. The module has a high-voltage generator inside, which amplifies the battery voltage into a high voltage of approx. 70 V and stores it in a capacitor. A control circuit outputs the high voltage to the injectors as a drive signal.

L3003_01038

Mazda3 MPS 1 2 3 4

PCM Injector no.1 Injector no.4 Injector no.2

01-54

5 6 7 8

Injector no.3 From PCM control relay High-voltage generator Control circuit

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Fuel System

The operation of the injection control is similar to that of the Mazda6 MPS.

L3003_01059

Curriculum Training

01-55

Fuel System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Diagnostics •

The components of the injection control can be checked as following:

– – – – – – – – – –

Monitoring the injector opening time via the PID FUELPW (Time) Varying the injector opening time via the PID FUELPW1# (Per) Monitoring the fuel injection amount via the PID FIA (Num) Checking the voltage at the IDM relay (only Mazda6 MPS) Checking the resistance of the IDM relay (only Mazda6 MPS) Checking the control signals at the IDM (only Mazda6 MPS) Checking the feedback signal at the PCM (only Mazda6 MPS) Checking the voltage signals of the injectors Checking the resistance of the injectors Checking the function of the injectors

Checking the function of the injectors •

Select the PIDs INJ_1#, INJ_2#, INJ_3# and INJ_4# (Mode) in the M-MDS Datalogger and start the engine. Then set the PID INJ_1# to “OFF” (to disable the corresponding injector) and check, whether the engine speed drops (and if so, how much it drops). Repeat this procedure for all injectors and note the values.



If the drop in engine speed at a certain cylinder is lower than on the other cylinders, the injector, ignition system or base engine might be faulty. In order to rule out a faulty ignition system, check the secondary voltage of the direct ignition coils using the WDS Ignition Test. In order to rule out a faulty base engine, check the compression of the engine.

01-56

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Ignition System

Ignition System Features •

The ignition system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:

– –

Distributorless ignition system

– –

Spark plugs

Direct ignition coils with integrated power transistor (similar to those of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Knock sensor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Parts Location

L3003_01049

1

Ignition coil

Curriculum Training

2

Spark plug

01-57

Ignition System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Wiring Diagram

L3003_01018

1 2 3 4 5

PCM Direct ignition coil Cylinder no.1 Cylinder no.2 Cylinder no.3

01-58

6 7 8 9

Cylinder no.4 Capacitor Ignition switch Battery

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Emission System

Emission System Parts Location

L3003_01019

Mazda6 MPS (engine compartment side) 1 2 3

Purge control valve EGR valve One-way valve

Curriculum Training

4 5 6

PCV valve Warm-up TWC TWC

01-59

Emission System

Mazda Direct Injection System

L3003_01020

Mazda6 MPS (fuel tank side) 1 2

Rollover valve Charcoal canister

01-60

3 4

Air filter One-way valve

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Emission System

System Overview

L3003_01021

1 2 3 4 5 6

Fuel-filler cap Rollover valve One-way valve Air filter Charcoal canister Purge control valve

Curriculum Training

7 8 9 10 11 12

EGR valve PCV valve Upstream HO2S Warm-up TWC Downstream HO2S TWC

01-61

Emission System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Exhaust System Features •

The exhaust system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:



Warm-up three-way catalytic converter (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

– –

Three-way catalytic converter (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Jump-type oxygen sensor with heater downstream of the catalytic converter (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Linear-type oxygen sensor with heater upstream of the catalytic converter (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Exhaust Gas Recirculation System Features •

The exhaust gas recirculation system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:



EGR valve with stepper motor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Evaporative Emissions Control System Features •

The evaporative emissions control system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:

– –

01-62

Charcoal canister (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system) Purge control valve (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Emission System

Positive Crankcase Ventilation System Features •

The positive crankcase ventilation system of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:



Positive crankcase ventilation valve with oil separator (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Curriculum Training

01-63

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System Parts Location

L3003_01022

Mazda6 MPS 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Fuel injector Camshaft position sensor Engine coolant temperature sensor

11 12 13

MAF/IAT sensor PCM IDM Park/Neutral position switch Crankshaft position sensor KS Power steering pressure switch

14 15 16 17 18 19 20

01-64

Fuel pressure sensor Oil control valve HO2S incl. heater (upstream, downstream) APP sensor Brake switch Clutch pedal position switch VSC solenoid valve VSC position switch Electronic throttle valve MAP/IAT sensor

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System

Block Diagram

L3003_01041

Curriculum Training

01-65

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18

PCM (incl. barometric pressure sensor) MAF/IAT sensor APP sensor TP sensor VSC position switch Fuel pressure sensor MAP/IAT sensor Camshaft position sensor Crankshaft position sensor Engine coolant temperature sensor KS HO2S (upstream, downstream) Power steering pressure switch Vehicle speed sensor Clutch pedal position switch Park/Neutral position switch Brake switch A/C switch

29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46

19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28

Refrigerant pressure switch Generator (stator coil) Cruise control switches Electronic throttle control VSC control VBC control Variable valve timing control Fuel pump control Fuel pressure control Injection control

47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55

01-66

Ignition control HO2S heater control EGR control Evaporative purge control Electrical fan control A/C compressor control Generator control Cruise control Immobilizer control Electronic throttle DC motor VSC solenoid valve VBC solenoid valve Oil control valve Spill control solenoid IDM PCM control relay Drive-by-wire relay Fuel pump relay and fuel pump speed control relay Direct ignition coils Purge control valve EGR stepper motor HO2S heater (upstream, downstream) Fan control module A/C relay Generator (field coil) Cruise main indicator light Cruise indicator light

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System

Relationship Chart

Refrigerant pressure switch Battery Generator (stator coil) Vehicle speed sensor Cruise control switches X: Applicable

Curriculum Training

X X

X

X X X

X X X

X X

X X X

Immobilizer control

X X

X X X X

Cruise control

X

X X

Generator control

X

X X

X X

X X X

A/C compressor control

X

X X X

Electrical fan control

X X X

X X X

X

EGR control

X X X X

X X

X X X X X X X X

HO2S heater control

X

Ignition control

X

Injection control

X X

Fuel pressure control

X

Fuel pump control

X X

Variable valve timing control

VBC control

X X X X X X X X

VSC control

MAF/IAT sensor APP sensor no.1, no.2 TP sensor no.1, no.2 MAP/IAT sensor BARO sensor (built into PCM) Engine coolant temperature sensor Crankshaft position sensor Camshaft position sensor VSC position switch Fuel pressure sensor KS HO2S (upstream, downstream) Clutch pedal position switch Park/Neutral position switch Brake switch Power steering pressure switch A/C switch

Evaporative purge control

Input

Device

Electronic throttle control

Control Item

X X X

X X

X X

X X

X X X X X X X

X X

X X X

X

X

X

X X X X

X X X

X X X

X X X

X

X

X

X X

X

X

X X X

X

X

X

X X X

X X X X X

X X

L3003_T01001a

01-67

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Output

Drive-by-wire relay Electronic throttle DC motor VSC solenoid valve VBC solenoid valve Oil control valve Fuel pump relay Fuel pump speed control relay Spill control solenoid IDM relay IDM Direct ignition coils HO2S heater (upstream, downstream) EGR stepper motor Purge control valve Cooling fan relay Fan control module A/C relay Generator (field coil) Cruise main indicator light Cruise indicator light Starter relay

X: Applicable

01-68

X X

Immobilizer control

Cruise control

Generator control

A/C compressor control

Electrical fan control

Evaporative purge control

EGR control

HO2S heater control

Ignition control

Injection control

Fuel pressure control

Fuel pump control

Variable valve timing control

VBC control

VSC control

Device

Electronic throttle control

Control Item

X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X X L3003_T01001b

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System

Powertrain Control Module Features •

The powertrain control module of the Mazda direct injection system has the following features:

– –

Read-only memory (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

– –

Variant configuration (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Random access memory with keep-alive power supply (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Controller area network with high-speed bus

Curriculum Training

01-69

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Controller Area Network •

The PCM communicates with other modules (e.g. DSC module, instrument cluster) through the CAN (Controller Area Network) bus in order to transmit engine-related data. The following illustration shows the high-speed CAN bus of the Mazda6 MPS.

L3003_01024

1 2 3 4

PCM CAN bus DSC HU/CM DLC

5 6 7 8

Information display Instrument cluster 4WD control module BCM

NOTE: For diagnosis on the controller area network refer to the workshop manual (section 09 – Control System).

01-70

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System •

Control System

The following table describes the engine-related data that are transmitted via the highspeed CAN bus of the Mazda6 MPS. Multiplex module

PCM

DSC HU/CM

4WD control module

OUT OUT OUT OUT – OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT

IN IN IN

– – IN





IN IN – IN – IN – – –

OUT

Signal

Instrument cluster

Information display

IN IN IN – – – – – –

– – IN IN OUT – – – – IN – IN IN IN

– – – – IN – – – – – – – – –





IN



OUT OUT

IN IN

– –

– –

– –

OUT





IN



Cruise indicator light on request

OUT





IN



Brake pedal position Torque reduction request Brake system configuration (EBD/ABS/TCS/DSC) Brake system status (EBD/ABS/TCS/DSC)

OUT IN

IN OUT

IN –

– –

– –

IN

OUT

IN

IN



IN

OUT

IN

IN



Wheel speed (LF, RF, LR, RR)

IN

OUT

IN





Back-up light switch condition



OUT

IN





Brake fluid pressure Steering wheel angle Yaw rate Lateral acceleration Desired coupling torque Actual coupling torque 4WD warning light on request Brake fluid level Fuel tank level

– – – – – – – – IN

OUT OUT OUT OUT OUT IN – IN –

IN IN IN IN IN OUT OUT – –

– – – – – – IN OUT OUT

– – – – – – – – –

Engine torque Torque reduction inhibit Engine speed Vehicle speed Accelerator pedal position Throttle position Neutral determination Gear ratio Engine coolant temperature Transaxle specifications Travelled distance Fuel injection amount MIL on request Generator warning light on request Engine specifications Tire circumference Cruise main indicator light on request

IN: Input (receives signal) OUT: Output (sends signal)

Curriculum Training

L3003_T01002

01-71

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Sensors Features •

The sensors of the Mazda direct injection system have the following features:



Magneto resistive-type crankshaft and camshaft position sensor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Engine coolant temperature sensor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Barometric pressure sensor integrated in the PCM (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Clutch pedal position and park/neutral position switch (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Power steering pressure switch (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)



Triple-type refrigerant pressure switch with medium-pressure contact (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system)

Actuators Features •

The actuators of the Mazda direct injection system have the following features:

– – – – – –

01-72

Variable valve timing system (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system) Electrical fan with fan control module A/C compressor (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system) Smart charging system (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system) Cruise control system (similar to that of the Mazda manifold injection system) Immobilizer system with immobilizer module integrated in the PCM, instrument cluster or keyless control module (depending on model and grade)

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System

Electrical Fan •

The Mazda3 MPS and Mazda6 MPS are equipped with a fan control module for the cooling fan(s) to reduce fan noise and electrical power consumption. The module is located on the radiator cowling and varies the fan speed infinitely variable depending on the engine coolant temperature and the A/C load (derived from the refrigerant pressure switch).



On the Mazda6 MPS the PCM also controls the power supply of the fan control module via the cooling fan relay.



The current flowing through the stator coil of the cooling fan motor(s) and hence the fan speed varies depending on the duty signal from the fan control module, which in turn depends on the duty signal from the PCM.

NOTE: In case of an open circuit in the cable between PCM and fan control module, the duty ratio outputted from the fan control module is fixed at 100 % and the cooling fans operate at maximum speed.

L3003_01023

1 2

PCM Fan control module

4 5

3

Power supply

6

Curriculum Training

Main fan motor Additional fan motor (only Mazda6 MPS) Control circuit

01-73

Control System •

Mazda Direct Injection System

The PCM controls the fan control module by a duty signal (the voltage level differs depending on the model). The speed of the cooling fan motor(s) is proportional to the duty ratio, i.e. the larger the duty ratio the higher the fan speed.

L3003_01060

01-74

Curriculum Training

Mazda Direct Injection System

Control System



In addition, the Mazda3 MPS and Mazda6 MPS are equipped with an after-cooling function to prevent engine damage due to heat accumulation in the engine compartment. If the engine coolant temperature exceeds the pre-set value T1 when the engine is shut off or the ignition is switched off, the PCM controls the fan control module with a small duty ratio until the temperature falls below the pre-set value T3.



In case the engine coolant temperature rises further and exceeds the pre-set value T2 after 30 s from when the after-cooling function has started, the PCM controls the fan control module with a large duty ratio until the temperature falls below the pre-set value T3.

L3003_01042

X Y2 1 2 3

Time Cooling fan speed Cooling fan control during engine operation Cooling fan control after engine shut-off High fan speed

Curriculum Training

Y1 4 5 6

Engine coolant temperature Low fan speed Engine shut-off or ignition off Fan speed during engine operation

01-75

Control System

Mazda Direct Injection System

Diagnostics •

The function of the electrical fan can be checked as following:

– – – – – –

01-76

Checking the voltage at the cooling fan relay Checking the resistance of the cooling fan relay Monitoring / Activating the fan control module via the PID FAN_DUTY# (Per/Mode) Checking the voltage signal to the fan control module Checking the voltage signal at the cooling fan motor(s) Checking the resistance of the cooling fan motor(s)

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System On-board Diagnostic System General •

The OBD (On-Board Diagnostic) system is integrated in the PCM and checks the overall engine management system for malfunctions. If a malfunction is detected, a corresponding diagnostic trouble code is stored in the fault memory. Then the malfunction indicator light is illuminated in order to alert the driver to the malfunction. A serial interface allows access to the engine-related diagnostic information using M-MDS, providing the basis for an efficient diagnosis and repair.

L3003_02001

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

PCM OBD system MIL driver Malfunction indicator light Fault memory Serial interface Data link connector M-MDS

Curriculum Training

9 10 11 12 13 14 15

Simulation test function PID monitor function Fault detection function Fail-safe function Sensors Engine management system Actuators

02-1

On-board Diagnostic System Malfunction Indicator Light •

The MIL (Malfunction Indicator Light) is located in the instrument cluster and serves to alert the driver to a malfunction in the engine management system. During normal operation the MIL illuminates when the ignition is on and is extinguished when the engine has started.



If the MIL stays on after engine start or comes up continuously during driving, then the OBD system has detected a fault causing increased exhaust emissions.



If the MIL starts to flash after engine start or during driving, then the OBD system has detected severe misfire causing irreversible damage to the TWC.

NOTE: If the MIL does not illuminate when the ignition is on, or stays on or flashes after engine start but no fault is stored in the PCM memory, this indicates a malfunction in the MIL control circuit.

L3003_02002

02-2

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Data Link Connector •

The DLC (Data Link Connector) is the interface between the OBD system and M-MDS, and allows access to the engine-related diagnostic information.



All EOBD vehicles are equipped with a 16-pin DLC (also termed as DLC-2) in the passenger compartment (near the steering column). The connector and the data communication protocols are standardized, i.e. the engine-related diagnostic information can also be accessed using a generic scan tool.

L3003_02003

Terminal 4 5 6 7 14 16

Description Ground Ground HS-CAN High KLN HS-CAN Low Battery power supply L2003_T02008

Curriculum Training

02-3

On-board Diagnostic System •

Some Mazda vehicles are additionally equipped with a 17-pin DLC (also termed as DLC-1) in the engine compartment (near the left suspension strut). The connector is not standardized, i.e. the engine-related diagnostic information can only be accessed using M-MDS.



Furthermore, the 17-pin DLC features eight additional pins, which allow to retrieve an engine speed signal or to activate the fuel pump.

L3003_02004

Terminal KLN TEN B+ GND IGF/P

Description Serial interface Triggering for engine tune-up Ignition power supply Ground Engine speed signal Activating the fuel pump L2003_T02009

02-4

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Diagnostic Trouble Codes •

After a fault has been detected a corresponding DTC (Diagnostic Trouble Code) is stored in the PCM memory and can be read out using M-MDS. A DTC is defined as a 5digit alphanumerical code (e.g. P0116) containing the information shown below.

P 0 1 16 System that has set the DTC P = Powertrain B = Body C = Chassis U = Network

Type of DTC 0 = Generic DTC 1 = Manufacturer-specific DTC

Sub-group that has set the DTC (for P code only) 1 = Fuel/Air metering 2 = Fuel/Air metering 3 = Ignition system/Misfire 4 = Auxiliary emission controls 5 = Idle/Vehicle speed/Auxiliary inputs 6 = Computer/Auxiliary outputs 7 = Transmission 8 = Transmission

Component affected and type of malfunction Refer to DTC list (here: 16 = Engine coolant temperature sensor - range/performance problem) L3003_T02001

Curriculum Training

02-5

On-board Diagnostic System DTC Status •

When reading out CMDTCs (Continuous Memory DTCs) on a vehicle with HS-CAN bus, the M-MDS additionally displays a status information behind each DTC (e.g. P0231-60). A corresponding description for the DTC status can be found on the right-hand side of the M-MDS screen.

L3003_02023



The DTC status is defined as a two-digit numerical or alphanumerical code. The first digit indicates, whether the fault is present at the time of DTC read-out and whether the MIL is on for this fault. The second digit provides information about the fault symptom (e.g. signal above or below threshold, no signal etc.). The following status information is used: DTC Status 2x 6x 7x Ax Ex FF

Description DTC not present, MIL OFF DTC present, MIL OFF DTC present, MIL OFF DTC not present, MIL ON DTC present, MIL ON No status available L2003_T02010

02-6

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Fault Detection Function •

The fault detection function is integrated in the PCM and monitors the sensors, actuators and PCM-internal components for malfunctions. Different monitoring strategies are used depending on the component concerned.

Monitoring Strategy for Sensors •

The sensors of the engine management system are monitored for electrical faults, range faults and plausibility faults. Therefore, the fault detection function measures the signal voltage of the sensors.

L3003_02006

1 2

Sensor PCM

Curriculum Training

3

Voltage detection circuit

02-7

On-board Diagnostic System Electrical Faults •

In order to detect electrical faults the fault detection function continuously compares the signal voltage measured to the limits for open circuit and short circuit to ground. If the signal voltage exceeds the upper limit (e.g. more than 4.8 V), the fault detection function determines that an open circuit exists. If the signal voltage measured exceeds the lower limit (e.g. less than 0.2 V), then this indicates a short circuit to ground.

L3003_02033

X 1 2 3

Physical parameter (here: pressure) Open circuit Range fault Short circuit to ground

Y 4 5

Output voltage Correct signal Faulty signal

Range Faults •

In order to detect range faults the fault detection function continuously compares the signal voltage measured to the measuring range of the sensor. If the signal voltage exceeds the specified range (e.g. less than 0.5 V or more than 4.5 V), the fault detection function determines that a range fault exists.

02-8

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Plausibility Faults •

In order to detect plausibility faults the fault detection function compares the signal voltage measured to other parameters of the engine management system by means of logical aspects. These parameters are derived from the momentary operating conditions of the engine and define an expected range for the sensor signals.



If the signal voltage exceeds this range (e.g. the difference between the mass air flow detected by the MAF sensor and the mass air flow derived from the TP sensor signal is too high), the fault detection function determines that a plausibility fault exists.

Monitoring Strategy for Actuators •

The actuators of the engine management system are monitored for electrical faults and functional faults. Therefore, the fault detection function measures the control voltage or the control current of the actuators.

L3003_02008

A 1 2 3

Monitoring the control voltage of the actuator From PCM control relay Actuator PCM

Curriculum Training

B 4 5

Monitoring the control current of the actuator Voltage detection circuit Current detection circuit

02-9

On-board Diagnostic System Electrical Faults •

In order to detect electrical faults the fault detection function energizes the actuator in question for a short time (e.g. after switching the ignition on or during engine start) and compares the control voltage/control current measured to the limits for faulty control circuit, open circuit and short circuit to ground.



If the control voltage measured exceeds the upper limit (e.g. more than 8 V) when the actuator is energized, the fault detection function determines that the control circuit is faulty. If the control voltage measured exceeds the lower limit (e.g. less than 8 V) when the actuator is de-energized, then this indicates an open circuit or a short circuit to ground.



If the control current measured exceeds the lower limit (e.g. less than 1 A) when the actuator is energized, the fault detection function determines that the control circuit is faulty, or that there is an open circuit or a short circuit to ground.

L3003_02009

X Y2 1 2

Time Actuator status Ignition ON or engine start Ignition OFF

02-10

Y1 3 4

Ignition switch status Actuator energized Actuator de-energized

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Functional Faults •

In order to detect functional faults the fault detection function monitors other parameters of the engine management system by means of logical aspects, when the actuator in question is activated. These parameters are derived from the momentary operating conditions of the engine and show the reaction of the system that is influenced by the actuator.



If the reaction of the system does not correspond to the control signals output to the actuator (e.g. the engine speed detected by the CKP sensor does not increase when the IAC valve is opened), the fault detection function determines that a functional fault exists.

Monitoring Strategy for PCM •

The components of the PCM (e.g. FEEPROM, RAM) are monitored for functional integrity by the PCM-internal hardware and software. Many of the diagnostic routines for the PCM are performed when the ignition is switched on or when the engine is running. Other routines that require a considerable amount of processor capacity (e.g. diagnostic routines for the FEEPROM) are carried out during the power-latch phase of the PCM. This prevents the diagnostic routines from interfering with other PCM operations.

Curriculum Training

02-11

On-board Diagnostic System Fail-safe Function •

The fail-safe function is integrated in the PCM and ensures the drivability of the vehicle during the occurrence of a fault. Different fail-safe strategies are used for sensors and actuators.

Fail-safe Strategy for Sensors •

If a fault is detected on a sensor for which fail-safe data is stored in the PCM, the failsafe function reverts to a constant substitute value for engine control. In order to prevent any further damage the fail-safe function will always use a “safe” substitute value. As a result, the vehicle can be driven without major restrictions.



If e.g. the ECT sensor is faulty, the PCM uses the engine coolant temperature of the cold engine (e.g. -40 °C) for engine control to ensure that the engine operates properly even at low ambient temperatures. In addition, the cooling fan is activated continuously to prevent the engine from overheating.

NOTE: If the fail-safe function uses a constant substitute value due to a faulty sensor, this value is also displayed when monitoring the calculated value (e.g. temperature, pressure etc.) of the corresponding PID using M-MDS. In order to prevent misdiagnosis the voltage value of the PID concerned should be monitored as well. If e.g. an open circuit exists on the ECT sensor, the PID ECT (Temp) displays a value of -40 °C (substitute value) but the PID ECT (Volt) indicates a value of 4.6 V (open circuit). •

If a fault is detected on a sensor for which no fail-safe data is stored in the PCM, the failsafe function initiates a limp home mode. As a result, the vehicle can be driven either with reduced driving comfort or with limited power output (depending on the sensor affected).

02-12

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Fail-safe Strategy for Actuators •

If a fault is detected on an actuator, the fail-safe function deactivates the corresponding control circuit and initiates a limp home mode. As a result, the vehicle can be driven either with reduced driving comfort or with limited power output (depending on the actuator affected).

NOTE: The fail-safe function might also deactivate the control circuit of an actuator, if an input signal required for control of the actuator in question is faulty. In order to rule out a faulty actuator, perform a simulation test using M-MDS. If the actuator can be controlled via M-MDS, check the relevant input signals for malfunctions.

Curriculum Training

02-13

On-board Diagnostic System European On-board Diagnostics General •

The European Union is introducing progressively stricter emissions legislation to achieve a long-lasting reduction in air pollution from vehicle emissions. As part of this legislation, all new petrol passenger vehicles requiring type approval from January 1st 2000 must be equipped with the EOBD (European On-Board Diagnostics) to monitor exhaust emissions. In addition, all petrol passenger vehicles first registered from January 1st 2001 must meet the EOBD regulations.



The EOBD system uses no additional sensors or actuators to measure the pollutants in the exhaust gas. It is integrated in the PCM and generally uses the existing sensors and actuators of the engine management system plus special software. These check the emission-relevant systems and components while the vehicle is traveling, and calculate the exhaust emissions accordingly.



If any changes that significantly deteriorate exhaust emissions are detected, the MIL is illuminated continuously. This is to alert the driver to the fact that the vehicle is potentially producing more emissions than it should, and the cause should be investigated as soon as reasonably practicable.



However, if severe misfire that causes irreversible damage to the TWC is detected, the MIL flashes. In this case, the driver should reduce the vehicle speed immediately and have the vehicle checked as soon as possible.

NOTE: If the MIL continues to flash after the vehicle speed has been reduced, heavy acceleration should be avoided to prevent the TWC from being damaged.

Type Approval and Testing •

According to the EOBD regulations the operation of the EOBD system must be guaranteed over the entire life of the vehicle. To obtain type approval for the European market, a vehicle must comply with the specified exhaust emission limits for at least 80,000 km (vehicles with Euro 3 emission standard) / 100,000 km (vehicles with Euro 4 emission standard) or five years (whichever comes first).



Compliance of mass production vehicles with the specified exhaust emission limits will be monitored in future by the authorities. Therefore, vehicles with various mileages will undergo random testing. If these checks reveal that the specified limits are exceeded systematically, the vehicle manufacturer will be held responsible. This may lead to costly recalls or restrictions to the type approval.

02-14

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

The exhaust emission limits used by the EOBD system to activate the MIL are always slightly higher than the limits of the Euro 3 emission standard. As a result, minimal overshooting of the Euro 3 limits still does not lead to an activation of the MIL.

Euro 3 Euro 4 EOBD

CO (g/km) 2.3 1.0 3.2

HC (g/km) 0.2 0.1 0.4

NOX (g/km) 0.15 0.08 0.6

L3003_02010

X 1 2 3

Mileage Exhaust emission limits of EOBD Exhaust emission limits of Euro 3 emission standard Exhaust emission limits of Euro 4 emission standard

Curriculum Training

Y 4 5

Exhaust emissions Actual exhaust emissions of the vehicle Emission relevant fault

6

MIL activated

02-15

On-board Diagnostic System Definitions •

The following definitions are important to understand the operation of the EOBD system.

Drive Cycle •

According to the EOBD regulations a drive cycle consists of engine start-up, engine operation where a malfunction would be detected if present, and engine shut off.

NOTE: A drive cycle starts when the engine exits from the "Engine Start" state and is completed when the ignition is switched off and the power latch phase of the PCM has ended. However, if the ignition is switched back on during the power latch phase the drive cycle is not completed. Warm-up Cycle •

According to the EOBD regulations a warm-up cycle consists of engine start-up and sufficient engine operation, so that the engine coolant temperature has risen at least 22 °C from engine starting and reaches a minimum temperature of 70 °C.

02-16

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Monitors •

The so called monitors are diagnostic routines carried out by the PCM in order to detect malfunctions of the emission-relevant systems and components. On Mazda petrol engines continuous and non-continuous monitors are used.



Continuous monitors operate permanently, i.e. the correct function of a system/ component is checked permanently during a drive cycle.

L3003_02011

X 1 2



Time Engine start Engine shut-off

Y 3 4

Vehicle speed Monitor operative Monitor inoperative

The continuous monitors are activated after engine start and operate until the engine is shut off.

Curriculum Training

02-17

On-board Diagnostic System •

Non-continuous monitors operate intermittently, i.e. the correct function of a system/ component is checked only once during a drive cycle, when suitable engine operating conditions exist.

L3003_02012

X 1 2 3

Time Vehicle speed when the monitoring conditions are met Engine start Engine shut-off

Y 4

Vehicle speed Monitor operative

5

Monitor inoperative



The non-continuous monitor is activated as soon as the operating conditions required for monitoring (also termed as monitoring conditions) exist, and the respective tests are carried out in a certain order. If the required operating conditions are no longer met during the monitoring phase, monitoring is stopped and the data collected so far is frozen. After regaining the operating conditions during the same drive cycle, monitoring is continued. In case the operating conditions are not met again during the same drive cycle, monitoring starts anew during the next drive cycle.



When monitoring is completed and no fault has occurred, the monitor is deactivated. As a result, a fault occurring in the system/component after the monitor has been deactivated will only be detected during the next drive cycle.



If a fault is detected during the monitoring phase, the system/component concerned and the monitor are switched off until the next drive cycle starts. In case the fault also affects the operation of other monitors, these are switched off as well. In this way, storage of subsequent faults is prevented.

02-18

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

The EOBD system of Mazda petrol engines comprises the following monitors:

– – – – – – –

Comprehensive component monitor Misfire monitor Fuel system monitor HO2S monitor HO2S heater monitor TWC monitor EGR system monitor (depending on the vehicle type)

Comprehensive Component Monitor •

The CCM (Comprehensive Component Monitor) continuously checks the emissionrelevant sensors and actuators for electrical faults, range faults, plausibility faults and functional faults. If an emission-relevant component fails, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.



The CCM only monitors those emission-relevant sensors and actuators, which are not checked by another monitor. In addition, the monitor checks components that are used by the EOBD system, but have no influence on the exhaust emissions.

Misfire Monitor •

The misfire monitor continuously checks, whether the acceleration of the crankshaft during the working stroke of each cylinder is above a certain limit. The acceleration of the crankshaft depends on the amount of torque produced by each cylinder. A misfiring cylinder reduces the amount of torque produced and hence the acceleration of the crankshaft.



The misfire monitor compares the crankshaft acceleration during the working stroke of each cylinder (detected via the CKP sensor signal by additionally using the CMP sensor signal) to the average value of the crankshaft accelerations of the other cylinders during two crankshaft revolutions to determine, if any of the cylinders is not producing the expected amount of torque. Crankshaft accelerations that deviate too much from the average value of the other cylinders indicate a misfiring cylinder.

Curriculum Training

02-19

On-board Diagnostic System

L3003_02030



X 1 2 3

Time Normal CKP sensor signal CKP sensor signal when misfire occurs Working stroke of cylinder no.1

4

Working stroke of cylinder no.3

Y 5 6 7

Output voltage Working stroke of cylinder no.4 Working stroke of cylinder no.2 Time deviation due to misfire at cylinder no.4

If misfire is detected, the PCM counts the number of misfires over 200 and 1000 crankshaft revolutions, and calculates the total misfire rate and the misfire rate for each cylinder: Misfire rate = No. of misfires / No. of working strokes



E.g. a total misfire rate of 25 % means that one cylinder in a 4-cylinder engine misfires completely.

02-20

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

If the misfire rate over 200 crankshaft revolutions exceeds the limit (typical values range from 40 % at idle to as low as 5 % at high engine speed and load) and the TWC has reached its operating temperature (calculated by the PCM), this is classified as a severe misfire causing irreversible damage to the TWC.



If the misfire rate over 1000 crankshaft revolutions exceeds the limit (typically 1…3 % regardless of engine speed and load), this is classified as a minor misfire causing increased exhaust emissions only.



If a cylinder misfires and subsequently the misfire rate over 200 or 1000 crankshaft revolutions exceeds the limit, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

NOTE: The Tribute F/L features a special strategy to protect the TWC against damage in case of severe misfire. If such a misfire is detected, the PCM cuts off the fuel injection at the cylinder in question. As a result, no unburnt fuel is induced into the TWC and burnt there, preventing the catalytic converter from being damaged. Fuel System Monitor •

The fuel system monitor continuously checks, whether the short-term and long-term fuel trim values of the fuel system are within a certain range. If a fuel system-related component fails and subsequently the correction factors of the short-term and long-term fuel trim exceed the rich or lean limit (typically ± 25 %) for more than a specified duration, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

HO2S Monitor •

The HO2S monitor intermittently checks the upstream and downstream HO2S for range faults and plausibility faults. In addition, the monitor checks the upstream HO2S for dynamic faults. Therefore, the PCM uniformly varies the air/fuel ratio around λ = 1, and monitors the response time and period duration of the HO2S signal. If the HO2S fails, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

Curriculum Training

02-21

On-board Diagnostic System

L3003_02031

X 1 2 3 4

Time Amplitude of HO2S signal Response time of HO2S signal Period duration of HO2S signal New HO2S

02-22

Y 5 6 7

Output voltage Aged HO2S Correct signal Faulty signal

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System HO2S Heater Monitor •

The HO2S heater monitor intermittently checks the heater element of the upstream and downstream HO2S for electrical faults. On vehicles with linear-type HO2S the monitor additionally checks the heater element for functional faults by monitoring the HO2S signal a short time after engine start. If the HO2S heater fails, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

TWC Monitor •

The TWC monitor intermittently checks, whether the conversion rate of the TWC is above a certain limit. The conversion rate depends on the ability of the active catalytic coating to store oxygen. Contamination or ageing of the active catalytic coating reduces this ability and hence the conversion rate of the TWC.



The TWC monitor compares the oxygen concentration in the exhaust gas downstream of the TWC (detected via the downstream HO2S) to that upstream of the TWC (detected via the upstream HO2S) to determine the oxygen storage capacity of the TWC. The PCM counts the number of switches between rich and lean cycles at the downstream and upstream HO2S, and calculates the switch ratio: Switch ratio = No. of switches at downstream HO2S / No. of switches at upstream HO2S



A low switch ratio of 0 means that there are no switches at the downstream HO2S, i.e. the oxygen concentration downstream of the TWC is low. As a result, the oxygen storage capacity of the TWC is high and consequently the conversion rate is good.



A high switch ratio of 1 means that the number of switches at the downstream HO2S is equivalent to the number of switches at the upstream HO2S, i.e. the oxygen concentration downstream of the TWC is equivalent to that upstream of the TWC. As a result, the oxygen storage capacity of the TWC is low and consequently the conversion rate is bad (e.g. active catalytic coating completely ineffective or hole in the ceramic carrier).



If the TWC fails and subsequently the switch ratio exceeds a certain limit (typically 0.75), this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

NOTE: On vehicles with two catalytic converters arranged in series only the upstream TWC (warm-up TWC) is monitored.

Curriculum Training

02-23

On-board Diagnostic System

L3003_02032

1 2 3 4

From exhaust manifold TWC To tailpipe Downstream HO2S

02-24

5 6 7 8

Upstream HO2S Signal of the upstream HO2S Normal signal of the downstream HO2S Signal of the downstream HO2S when the TWC is aged

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System EGR System Monitor •

The Tribute F/L features an EGR system monitor, which intermittently checks the components of the EGR system for electrical faults and functional faults. The monitoring strategy for functional faults varies depending on the engine type.



On the Tribute F/L with L3 engine (equipped with stepper motor-controlled EGR valve) the EGR system is checked for functional faults by monitoring the pressure changes in the intake manifold (derived from the MAP sensor signal) when opening and closing the EGR valve several times.

L3003_02034

X Y2

Time Manifold absolute pressure

Y1

EGR valve lift



On the Tribute F/L with AJ engine (equipped with vacuum-controlled EGR valve) the EGR system is checked for functional faults by monitoring the EGR rate in the EGR pipe (derived from the EGR differential pressure sensor signal).



If an EGR system-related component fails, this is recognized by the monitor and a fault is stored in the PCM memory.

NOTE: On all other current Mazda vehicles (equipped with stepper motor-controlled EGR valve) the EGR system is solely monitored for electrical faults via the CCM.

Curriculum Training

02-25

On-board Diagnostic System Temporary Disablement of Monitors •

According to the EOBD regulations temporary disablement of individual monitors is permitted under certain conditions to prevent mis-diagnosis and hence incorrect malfunction indication by the EOBD system. The monitors can be disabled during:

– – –

Vehicle operation with a fuel tank level below 20 % Vehicle operation at elevations over 2500 m above sea level Engine start at ambient temperatures below -7 °C

Monitor Status •

The monitor status provides information about the monitors supported by the EOBD system and their completion status.

L3003_02024

02-26

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

The monitors supported by the EOBD system can be checked with the aid of the PIDs with the ending "_SUP". If e.g. the PID EGR_SUP is set to "YES", the EGR system monitor is supported. Monitors that are set to "NO" are generally not supported and can be disregarded.



The completion status of the monitors can be checked with the aid of the PIDs with the ending "_EVAL". If e.g. the PID EGR_EVAL is set to "YES", the tests of the EGR system monitor have been completed.

NOTE: For monitors that are not supported by the EOBD system the PIDs with the ending "_EVAL" are automatically set to "YES“. If e.g. the evaporative system monitor is not supported on Mazda petrol engines, the PID EVAP_SUP is set to "NO" and the PID EVAP_EVAL is set to "YES". This is to prevent technicians from mis-interpreting that the tests of this monitor have not been completed yet. •

CCM, misfire monitor and fuel system monitor run continuously and therefore always display "YES“ for the completion status. The intermittently operating HO2S, HO2S heater, TWC and EGR system monitors only display "YES", if the respective tests have been completed at least once.



For non-continuous monitors the completion status is reset to "NO" when clearing the DTCs with M-MDS. Then the OBD drive mode must be performed, so that these monitors can carry out their tests.



If "NO" is displayed for a non-continuous monitor, the following reasons should be considered:

– – – •

No monitoring has been performed since the vehicle was manufactured. No monitoring has been performed since the fault memory was last cleared. A fault has been detected during monitoring.

The monitor status and other EOBD-related PIDs can be checked with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆOBD Test ModesÆMode 1 Powertrain Data.

Curriculum Training

02-27

On-board Diagnostic System MIL Activation and Fault Storage •

The conditions for MIL activation and fault storage largely depend on the vehicle type. Generally the MIL only comes on when a fault is stored in the PCM memory as a confirmed fault. If the fault does not reoccur during three drive cycles, the MIL is extinguished in the fourth drive cycle. However, the fault remains stored in the PCM memory. Faults that no longer occur are automatically cleared from the PCM memory after 40 warm-up cycles.



In addition, the MIL is extinguished when the related fault is cleared with M-MDS.

L3003_02025



If the MIL illuminates or flashes, the customer is not legally obliged to do anything, but the fault that caused the MIL to illuminate continuously or to flash may result in the vehicle failing a regular emission test. However, the customer is advised to take the vehicle to an authorized Mazda workshop as soon as possible.



In addition, the EOBD system records the distance traveled since the MIL was activated. Thus a check can be made on how long a customer took to have an emission-relevant fault repaired. This may become important in warranty issues and therefore should be noted on the repair order.

02-28

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

The distance traveled since activation of the MIL can be checked with the aid of the PID MIL_DIS (Meter), which can be called up with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆ PowertrainÆOBD Test ModesÆMode 1 Powertrain Data.



On all current Mazda vehicles with Z-type or L-type engines the MIL is activated either after one drive cycle or after two drive cycles. In addition, on the Tribute F/L the MIL is generally activated after two drive cycles.



MIL activation after one drive cycle is used for faults for which fail-safe data is stored in the PCM. If such a fault comes up, the PCM reverts to the fail-safe data (e.g. substitute value) for engine control. As a result, a fault occurring for the first time is stored in the PCM memory directly as a confirmed fault (MIL DTC). Consequently, the MIL is illuminated.

DC

Fault

DC

1

Monitoring conditions not met

2

Yes

Yes

Yes

MIL DTC Stored MIL

ON

DC DC DC

1

1

2

Monitoring conditions not met

DC

DC

WUC

DC

3

1

40

1

Yes No

Stored ON

Erased OFF

DC: Drive cycle WUC: Warm-up cycle L3003_T02002

Curriculum Training

02-29

On-board Diagnostic System •

MIL activation after two drive cycles is used for faults for which no fail-safe data is stored in the PCM. If such a fault comes up, the PCM initiates a limp home mode (e.g. engine speed limitation). As a result, a fault occurring for the first time is stored in the PCM memory as a presumed fault (pending DTC), but the MIL is not illuminated. If the fault is not confirmed during the second drive cycle, the PCM judges that the system/ component has returned to normal operation or that the fault was detected due to misdiagnosis, and deletes the presumed fault.



Presumed faults related to minor misfire or the fuel system are only deleted, if they are not confirmed during a second drive cycle that meets all of the following conditions:

– – –

Engine speed within ± 375 min-1 of that during the first drive cycle Engine load within ± 20 % of that during the first drive cycle Engine warm-up status same as that during the first drive cycle (i.e. engine coolant temperature either below 70 °C (cold engine) or 70 °C or above (warm engine))

DC

Fault

DC

1

Monitoring conditions not met

2

Yes

Yes

No

Pending Stored DTC MIL DTC MIL

DC

1

DC DC

1

2

DC DC Monitoring conditions not met

3

1

WUC DC

40

1

Stored Erased

No

No

OFF

OFF

DC: Drive cycle WUC: Warm-up cycle L3003_T02003

02-30

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

However, if such a fault is confirmed during the second drive cycle, the PCM judges that the system/component has failed, and stores a confirmed fault in addition to the presumed fault. As a result, the MIL is illuminated.

DC

Fault

DC

1

Monitoring conditions not met

2

Yes

Yes

Yes

Pending Stored DTC

Stored

MIL DTC

No

Stored

OFF

ON

MIL

DC DC

1

1

DC

2

DC DC Monitoring conditions not met

3

1

WUC

DC

40

1

Yes No Erased Erased OFF

DC: Drive cycle WUC: Warm-up cycle L3003_T02004

Curriculum Training

02-31

On-board Diagnostic System •

On the Mazda2 with MZI engine the MIL is generally activated after three drive cycles. As a result, a fault occurring for the first time is stored in the PCM memory as a presumed fault, but the MIL is not illuminated. If the fault is not confirmed during the second drive cycle, the PCM judges that the system/component has returned to normal operation or that the fault was detected due to mis-diagnosis, and deletes the presumed fault (also refer to MIL activation after two drive cycles).



However, if such a fault is confirmed during the second and the third drive cycle, the PCM judges that the system/component has failed, and stores a confirmed fault in addition to the presumed fault in the third drive cycle. As a result, the MIL is illuminated.

DC

Fault

DC

DC

1

Monitoring conditions not met

2

3

Yes

Yes

Yes

Yes

Pending Stored DTC

Stored

MIL DTC

No

Stored

OFF

ON

MIL

DC DC

1

1

DC

2

DC DC Monitoring conditions not met

3

1

WUC

DC

40

1

Yes No Erased Erased OFF

DC: Drive cycle WUC: Warm-up cycle L3003_T02005



Independent from the vehicle type the MIL is activated immediately during the first drive cycle, if severe misfire causing irreversible damage to the TWC is detected. In this case, a confirmed fault is stored in the PCM memory and the MIL flashes.



The pending DTCs and the MIL DTCs can be read out and cleared with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆSelftestÆModulesÆPCMÆRetrieve CMDTCs.

NOTE: When the DTCs are cleared, the freeze frame data, diagnostic monitoring test results and distance traveled since activation of the MIL are cleared as well. In addition, the completion status of the non-continuous monitors is reset.

02-32

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System NOTE: On the Mazda2 and Tribute F/L the DTC P1000 (OBD system readiness test not complete) comes up after the PCM memory has been cleared. This fault code indicates that not all monitors have completed their tests. The fault code does not mean that a fault has been found in a system/component, and can therefore not be cleared with M-MDS. Once the OBD drive mode has been performed and all monitors have completed their tests, the DTC P1000 is cleared automatically.

Freeze Frame Data •

The FFD (Freeze Frame Data) is a snapshot of the engine operating conditions at the occurrence of the first fault. This data is stored in the PCM memory and will not be overwritten, even if a confirmed fault is stored in addition to a presumed fault. The only exception are faults related to misfire or the fuel system, since these have a higher priority. If such a fault is stored in the PCM memory, its FFD will overwrite any old data, unless the previous FFD are also related to misfire or the fuel system.

L3003_02026

Curriculum Training

02-33

On-board Diagnostic System •

The FFD is very helpful when diagnosing the potential causes of a malfunction. In addition, a concern can be reproduced easier by driving the vehicle under the same conditions as indicated by the FFD.



According to the EOBD regulations the following data must be stored in the PCM memory when the first fault is detected: FFD ECT FRP FUELSYS1/2 LFT1/2 LOAD MAP RPM SFT1/2 VS

Description Engine coolant temperature Fuel rail pressure Fuel system status (right bank/left bank) Long-term fuel trim (right bank/left bank) Calculated engine load Manifold absolute pressure Engine speed Short-term fuel trim (right bank/left bank) Vehicle speed L2003_T02011



The FFD can be read out with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆSelftestÆModulesÆ PCMÆRetrieve CMDTCs.

NOTE: Depending on the vehicle type FFD for a pending DTC is only displayed by M-MDS, if the fault in question is also stored as a confirmed fault in the PCM memory.

02-34

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Diagnostic Monitoring Test Results •

The DMTR (Diagnostic Monitoring Test Results) are the numerical results from the last tests performed by certain monitors. This data is stored in the PCM memory and will only be overwritten whenever a monitor has completed its tests again. The data consists of a description of the corresponding test, the OBDMID (OBD Monitor Identification), test ID, minimum/maximum limit and test result.

L3003_02027

Curriculum Training

02-35

On-board Diagnostic System •



The DMTR provide additional information, whether monitoring of a component/system has been completed and whether the component/system is okay. Therefore, the test results of the monitor in question must be compared to the respective minimum/ maximum limit:



If the DMTR and the minimum/maximum limit indicate the initial values (e.g. 0), monitoring has not been performed at all or has not been completed yet. The completion status of the corresponding monitor is consequently set to “NO”. In this case, the OBD drive mode required for the monitor in question must be repeated.



If the DMTR indicate a value which is outside the limits, monitoring is completed and the component/system in question is faulty. The completion status of the corresponding monitor is consequently set to “NO”, and a pending DTC or MIL DTC is stored in the PCM memory.



If the DMTR indicate a value which is within the limits, monitoring is completed and the component/system in question is okay. The completion status of the corresponding monitor is consequently set to “YES”.

The DMTR can be read out with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆ OBD Test ModesÆMode 6 On-board Test Results.

NOTE: The DMTR displayed by M-MDS are not updated even when the data stored in the PCM memory changes. For this reason, the Repeat button must be pressed to update the M-MDS display.

02-36

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Tamper Protection •

According to the EOBD regulations the PCM/TCM must have a write-protection for any reprogrammable computer code to prevent tampering (such as unauthorized reprogramming etc.).



The CALID (CALibration Identification) identifies the specific calibration and is defined as a 16-digit alphanumerical code providing information about calibration name, type of vehicle, release date, release engineer and version number. The CVN (Calibration Verification Number) serves to verify whether the correct software is stored in the PCM/TCM and is similar to an encrypted checksum. CALID and CVN will be tracked for all initial releases, running changes and field fixes of the PCM/TCM software.

L3003_02028



The CALID, CVN and VIN can be read out with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆ PowertrainÆOBD Test ModesÆMode 9 Vehicle Information.

Curriculum Training

02-37

On-board Diagnostic System Diagnostics •

When performing diagnosis and repair of EOBD-related concerns the basic procedure shown below should be followed.

NOTE: Failure to follow this procedure will make it extremely difficult to properly diagnose and repair EOBD-related concerns. Customer brings the vehicle in the workshop.

Read out DTCs and FFD (M-MDS Selftest) and note the data.

Perform diagnosis and repair the fault. Vehicles without KAM Clear DTCs(M-MDS Selftest).

Vehicles with KAM Clear the KAM by disconnecting the battery for 1 min.

Perform the PCM adaptive memory learning mode.

Check whether the PID RFC_FLAG is set to "Learnt" (MMDS Datalogger).

No

Yes Perform the repair verification drive mode.

DTCs stored

Read out DTCs (M-MDS Selftest) No DTCs stored Check whether all the monitors have completed their tests (M-MDS Mode 1). Tests completed

Tests not completed

Return vehicle to the customer. L3003_T02006

02-38

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System OBD Drive Mode •

The OBD drive mode consists of the PCM adaptive memory learning mode and the repair verification drive mode, and serves to verify that the vehicle is in order after performing any EOBD-related repairs.

PCM Adaptive Memory Learning Mode •

The PCM adaptive memory learning mode allows the engine management system to establish the permanent correction factors of the long-term fuel trim. The PCM uses these values for the air/fuel ratio control and for the OBD monitors.



If the PCM adaptive memory learning mode is not performed, most monitors will never run. For this reason, it is absolutely necessary to conduct the learning mode prior to the repair verification drive mode.



On all current Mazda vehicles except for the Mazda2 the permanent correction factors for the long-term fuel trim are logged in the KAM. Since the Mazda2 features no KAM, the correction factors are logged in the FEEPROM.

NOTE: After performing EOBD-related repairs the permanent correction factors of the longterm fuel trim should be reset by disconnecting the battery for 1 min. Hereafter, the PCM adaptive memory learning mode must be performed, allowing the PCM to re-establish the correction factors. NOTE: On the Mazda2 and Tribute F/L the PCM adaptive memory learning mode is not available.

Curriculum Training

02-39

On-board Diagnostic System •

E.g. the PCM adaptive memory learning mode for Mazda3 BK and Mazda6 GG/GY with 2.0 MZR engine must be performed as following: 1. Bring the engine to normal operating temperature and verify that all accessory loads (A/C, headlights, blower motor, rear window defroster) are off. 2. Make sure that ignition timing and idle speed are within specification. 3. Increase the engine speed according to the learning mode indicated in the figure. Hereafter, let the engine idle for more than 30 s after the cooling fan has stopped. 4. Confirm that the PCM adaptive memory learning mode has been performed successfully by checking the PID RFC_FLAG (Mode), which can be called up with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆDataloggerÆModulesÆPCM. If the PID is set to “Learnt”, the learning mode has been performed successfully. Otherwise repeat the PCM adaptive memory learning mode.

NOTE: Depending on the vehicle type the PID RFC_FLAG may not be available.

L3003_02017

X 1 2

Time Idle 2800…3200 min-1

02-40

Y 3

Engine speed Idle with cooling fan OFF

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System Repair Verification Drive Mode •

The repair verification drive mode is designed in a way that all the monitors can conduct and complete their tests in a logical order and hence in the fastest possible way.

NOTE: The tests of the monitors can be completed faster if the accelerator pedal is moved smoothly when accelerating or decelerating. In addition, the fuel tank level should be above 20 % as otherwise the misfire monitor, fuel system monitor, HO2S monitor and TWC monitor might be disabled, preventing other monitors from running. •

E.g. the repair verification drive mode for the Mazda3 BK with 2.0 MZR engine and MTX must be performed as following: 1. Confirm that the PID RFC_FLAG is set to “Learnt”. If the PID is set to “Not Learnt”, perform the PCM adaptive memory learning mode prior to the repair verification drive mode. 2. Bring the engine to normal operating temperature and verify that all accessory loads (A/C, headlights, blower motor, rear window defroster) are off. 3. Drive the vehicle according to the drive mode indicated in the figure. First drive in zone O, then A or B, followed by C or D and finally E or F. The driving conditions before driving at constant vehicle speed are not specified. 4. Confirm that the repair verification drive mode has been performed successfully by checking the completion status of the monitors. If all PIDs with the ending “_EVAL” are set to “YES”, the drive mode has been performed successfully. Otherwise repeat the repair verification drive mode.

Curriculum Training

02-41

On-board Diagnostic System

L3003_02018

X

Time

Y

Zone O A B C D E F

Shift Position Neutral 2nd gear 3rd gear 2nd gear 3rd gear 4th gear 5th gear

Vehicle speed

Vehicle Speed (km/h) 0 40...50 65...75 60...75 75...100 50...75 70...95 L2003_T02007

02-42

Curriculum Training

On-board Diagnostic System •

On the Tribute F/L the instructions for the repair verification drive mode can be found in M-MDS. In addition, the M-MDS allows the user to check the current operating conditions and the status of the individual monitors.

L3003_02029



The instructions for the repair verification drive mode can be accessed with M-MDS via the option ToolboxÆPowertrainÆOBD Test ModesÆOBD Drive Cycle.

Curriculum Training

02-43

On-board Diagnostic System Notes:

02-44

Curriculum Training

Engine Mechanical System Engine Mechanical System General •

While the various sub-systems of the Mazda petrol engine management systems (such as intake-air system, fuel system, ignition system, emission system and control system) have already been covered in the course “Basic Petrol Engine Management” and in the preceding sections, this section describes the engine mechanical system.



The following parameters of the engine mechanical system can affect the running of a petrol engine:

– – –

Compression pressure Valve timing Valve clearance

Compression Pressure •

A sufficiently high compression pressure ensures that the air/fuel mixture burns completely in the combustion chamber.



Insufficient compression pressure can occur due to worn piston rings, worn valves or a leaking cylinder head gasket. This can lead to poor engine power and increased exhaust emissions.

L3003_02019

1

Compression pressure tester

Curriculum Training

03-1

Engine Mechanical System Valve Timing •

The correct valve timing ensures that the valves open and close at the right time to provide a good cylinder charge and optimum compression pressure.



Incorrect valve timing can occur, if the camshaft sprockets are not aligned correctly or if the timing belt has jumped over. On engines with variable valve timing a faulty camshaft actuator can also cause incorrect valve timing. This can lead to misfire, poor engine power, increased exhaust emissions, or engine damage due to contact between the piston and the valves (the latter one depending on the engine type).

L3003_02020

1 2

03-2

Timing mark for exhaust camshaft Timing mark for intake camshaft

3

Timing mark for crankshaft

Curriculum Training

Engine Mechanical System Valve Clearance •

The correct valve clearance ensures that the valves open wide enough to provide a good cylinder charge and at the same time close fully to ensure an optimum compression pressure.



Incorrect valve clearance can occur due to wear and thermal overloading of the valves. On engines with hydraulic valve clearance compensation, faulty hydraulic lash adjusters can also cause incorrect valve clearance. This can lead to poor engine power, noises from the valve gear, or burnt valves due to insufficient heat transfer to the cylinder head.

L3003_02021

Curriculum Training

03-3

Engine Mechanical System Diagnostics •

The engine mechanical system can be checked as following:

– – – –

Checking the compression pressure Checking the pressure loss Checking the valve timing Checking the valve clearance

Checking the pressure loss •

If the compression pressure of a cylinder is found to be too low, the pressure loss test can be used to locate the leak in the combustion chamber and to establish which components are faulty. The principle of the pressure loss test is that the combustion chamber is pressurized with compressed air and the loss of pressure arising due to the leak is indicated by flowing noises. For this, the piston must be in TDC position and the valves closed. Then a compressed air hose is connected with a suitable adapter to the spark plug opening of the cylinder concerned.



If the compressed air is escaping at a valve, flowing noises will be audible in the intakeair or exhaust system. Loss of pressure past the piston rings into the crankcase can be identified by flowing noises from the oil filler opening. Flowing noises in another cylinder or bubbling in the cooling system indicates a leaking cylinder head gasket.

03-4

Curriculum Training

Diagnostic Process Diagnostic Process General •

Diagnosis requires comprehensive knowledge of the system operation. As with all diagnosis, a technician must use symptoms and clues to determine the cause of a customer concern. The following diagnostic process provides you with a logical method for rectifying customer concerns: 1. Confirm the symptom of the customer concern. 2. Determine which system of the vehicle could be causing the symptom. 3. Once you identify the particular system, determine which component(s) within that system could be the cause for the symptom. 4. After determining the faulty component(s) you should always try to identify the cause of the failure. In some cases components just wear out. However, in other cases something else than the failed component is responsible for the problem.

L3003_02022

1 2

Symptom Systems

Curriculum Training

3 4

Components Causes

04-1

Diagnostic Process •

For example, a customer’s car is brought in the workshop with a “No start” concern, i.e. the symptom is that the engine will not start. During diagnosis you find that the fuel pressure in the fuel rail is too low. Therefore, you determine that the fuel system is the cause for the problem. By performing diagnostic routines, you determine that the fuel pump is the faulty component. Further investigation shows that contamination in the fuel tank is the cause of the component failure.

Basic Checks for Troubleshooting •

When performing troubleshooting on a petrol engine the following basic checks should be made before moving on to more complex electrical checks.

NOTE: If the customer concern is “No start” or “Hard start”, spray “Start Pilot” into the intakeair duct while cranking the engine. If the engine starts, the fuel system might be faulty. If the engine does not start, then this indicates a fault in the ignition system or engine mechanical system. Engine Mechanical System •

Check the compression and if necessary the pressure loss.



Check the valve timing.



Check the valve clearance.



Check the engine oil for contamination (e.g. by engine coolant).



Check the engine coolant for contamination (e.g. by engine oil).

Intake-air System •

Check the condition of the air cleaner.



Check the intake-air system for leakage (incl. O-rings of the injectors) or oil ingress.



Check the adjustment of the accelerator cable (only mechanical throttle valve).



Check the function of the electronic throttle valve.



Check the function of the idle air control valve (only mechanical throttle valve).



Check the idle speed.



Check the turbocharger (only 2.3 MZR DISI Turbo engine).



Check the function of the boost pressure control valve (only 2.3 MZR DISI Turbo engine).

04-2

Curriculum Training

Diagnostic Process Fuel System •

Check whether the fuel tank contains sufficient petrol.



Check the petrol for contamination (e.g. by particles, water, diesel fuel).



Check the fuel system for leakage.



Check the fuel lines for leakage or kinks.



Check the function of the fuel tank ventilation.



Check the function of the fuel pump.



Check the fuel pressure.

Ignition System •

Check the condition of the spark plugs.



Check condition and resistance of the high-tension leads.



Check the ignition voltage.



Check the ignition timing.

Emission System •

Check the exhaust system for leakage.



Check the catalytic converter for blockage.



Check the function of the EGR system.



Check the function of the evaporative emissions control system.



Check the function of the positive crankcase ventilation system.

Control System •

Check the function of the fuses and relays.



Check the condition of the electrical connections incl. ground connections.



Check the condition of the battery.



Check the condition of the starter motor.



Check the function of the variable valve timing system.

Curriculum Training

04-3

Diagnostic Process Notes:

04-4

Curriculum Training

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

List of Abbreviations

ABS

Anti-lock Brake System

DC

Direct Current

A/C

Air Conditioning

DISI

Direct Injection Spark Ignition

APP

Accelerator Pedal Position DLC

Data Link Connector

DMTR

Diagnostic Monitoring Test Results

DSC

Dynamic Stability Control

DTC

Diagnostic Trouble Code

EBD

Electronic Brakeforce Distribution

BARO

Barometric Pressure

BCM

Body Control Module

BDC

Bottom Dead Center

CALID

Calibration Identification

CAN

Controller Area Network

CCM

Comprehensive Component Monitor

ECT

Engine Coolant Temperature

CKP

Crankshaft Position

EGR

Exhaust Gas Recirculation

CMDTC

Continuous Memory DTC

EOBD

European On-Board Diagnostics

CMP

Camshaft Position

FFD

Freeze Frame Data

CO

Carbon Monoxide

FGT

Fixed Geometry Turbine

CVN

Calibration Verification Number

FHA

Fuel Hose Adapter

Curriculum Training

05-1

List of Abbreviations

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

HC

Hydro Carbon

OBDMID

OBD Monitor Identification

HO2S

Heated O2 Sensor

PCM

Powertrain Control Module

HU/CM

Hydraulic Unit/Control Module

PCV

Positive Crankcase Ventilation

IAC

Idle Air Control

PID

Parameter Identification

IAT

Intake Air Temperature

PVT

Pressure/Vacuum Transducer

IDM

Injector Driver Module SST

Special Service Tool

TCM

Transmission Control Module

TCS

Traction Control System

TDC

Top Dead Center

TP

Throttle Position

TWC

Three-Way Catalytic Converter

VBC

Variable Boost Control

VIN

Vehicle Identification Number

KS

MAF

MAP

MIL

M-MDS

MTX

NOx

OBD

05-2

Knock Sensor

Mass Air Flow

Manifold Absolute Pressure

Malfunction Indicator Light

Mazda Modular Diagnostic System

Manual Transaxle

Oxides of Nitrogen

On-Board Diagnostics

Curriculum Training

Adv. Petrol Engine Management VSC

Variable Swirl Control

WDS

Worldwide Diagnostic System

4WD

4-Wheel Drive

Curriculum Training

List of Abbreviations

05-3

List of Abbreviations

Adv. Petrol Engine Management

Notes:

05-4

Curriculum Training

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